Presentation on theme: "Postclassical Period New Faith and New Commerce"— Presentation transcript:
1 Postclassical Period New Faith and New Commerce ~Intensification of Exchange & the Nomads Last Hurrah~
2 Periodization…up to interpretation There is much more concensus among historians about the existance of a postclassical period between 500/600 CE and This is likely evidence of the magnitude of the collapse of the classical empires and the significance of the late 1400s as a period of exploration (and discovery of the New World).500 CE is a useful starting date because it captures some of the spread of Buddhism & Christianity, the reign of Justinian, as well as the Sui dynasty’s restoration of order.600 CE is a useful starting date because it speaks to the importance of Islam’s development as a transformation force in fostering interregional connections as well as reflective of religion’s importance during the period in general.1450 CE is an important date because it divides the spread of Islam to SE Asia & East Africa, the Late Middle Ages, and the Byzantine Empire from a later post-1450 era Atlantic Ocean trade, gunpowder, and Renaissance thought.
3 ________________ ________________ 945 CE ________________1054 CE ________________________________ s CE________________ ________________1127 CE ________________________________ CE618 CE ________________________________ CE750 CE ________________________________ CE________________ CE________________ CE1300s CE ________________ ________________________________ CE________________ CE
4 Themes to Consider Demographics & Movement Trade Gender Roles Belief SystemsPolitical organizationThemes to Consider
5 Questions to Consider …b/t 600 & 1450 Compare the Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates.Analyze the changes and continuities in the role of Christianity in Western Europe.Compare Byzantium & Tang-Song China.Analyze the changes and continuities in the role of women.Questions to Consider …b/t 600 & 1450
6 Population increased from 250 mil to 450 mil Provide a good summary of period: How?Population increased from 250 mil to 450 milDemographicsPopulation recovery from Classical decline begins the Post-Classical periodAlthough Middle Eastern and South Asian populations stagnated, populations grew steadily in Africa, Europe, ChinaMigration of Bantu in Africa complete by end of Classical period fostered population growth (and more complex civilizations in region)Europe’s new technologies of moldboard plow and three-field system led to increased population in 10th century. Also, the adoption of Asian crops via the Middle East added productive capacityChina opened new land, built dams, and adopted Champa rice from SE Asia, which all led to more agricultural productivity and population growthThe greater overland connections fostered by the Mongol expansion allowed bubonic plague to spread from China to the Middle East and Europe. The disease wiped out 1/3 of many societies and break outs reoccurred for four centuriesDemographic Trends
7 Demographic Trends Migrations Vikings Mongols Germanic Tribes Bantu-Speaking People of AfricaMongolsTurkic GroupsPeople of OceaniaArabsGermanic TribesChineseAt the close of the Classical Period, that Bantu peoples were spreading throughout Africa. At the same time, Germanic peoples were migrating to Western Europe and destabilizing the western Roman Empire. As civilization in Western Europe was re-built political unity was slowed by Viking migrations. Vikings experienced population growth and moved westward to raid northern Europe and eastward, eventually mixing with slavic peoples and forming Kievan Russia.After Islam united the bedouins, these Arabs expanded outward, conquering a region from Spain to India. As Turkic populations grew in Central Asia, the Seljuks and then the Ottomans expanded westward and destabilized the Abbasid Caliphate.As Chinese civilization blossomed, ethnic Chinese increasingly inhabited southern China and northern Vietnam.By last centuries of the Post-Classical period, Mongol nomads united under Chinggis Khan’s leadership conquered an area from Russia and the Middle East to China and Korea.Demographic Trends
8 Compare the Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates. ???The Postclassical Period witnesses a growth of interregional exchange that is unprecedented. The Islamic Caliphates were a tremendous impetus for connecting Africa, Southeast Asia, Europe, and China. While internationally the two caliphates have similar impacts, the internal social and political policies of each differ greatly.
9 Islam One of the defining developments of Postclassical period Rooted in Judaism & ChristianityFive Pillars, QuranFounded by a merchant named Muhammad among the bedouin Arabs in the early 7th century. Muhammad preached a message that continued the monotheistic tradition of Judaism and Christianity. Muhammad’s teachings, initially unwelcome among Arabs united a violent nomadic culture in common purpose as animistic peoples prayed to one god. Muhammad taught that Judaism and Christianity were all “People of the Book” as they all traced their roots back to the Old Testament’s Abraham. This meant a belief in the Ten Commandments, heaven/hell, and all previous Judeo-Christian prophets. Yet, Muhammad was thought to be the “Seal of the Prophets” as no others could come after.Central to Muhammad’s new religion, Islam, were the Five Pillars (five practices that supported the basic tenets of their belief in God). 1) There is no God, but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger, 2) Pray five times daily, 3) Give to Charity, 4) Fast during the holy month of Ramadan, 5) Travel to the holy city of Mecca on a religious pilgrimmage/hajj.These central practices were recorded in the Islamic holy book of the Quran, a poetic record of God’s words, according to Islam. Because the Quran was originally a oral record of God’s message (according to Islam), Muslims believe the Quran to be particularly holy. The words themselves are holy, and therefore, Islam does not allow artistic representations of God beyond the words of the Quran.Muhammad made a mark as a political and religious leader in order to win converts and direct some resistance Meccans to worship. When Muhammad died, the new Islamic community was faced with finding a successor to this political/religious leadership. A divide in the community occurred as some believed any devote Muslim could lead the community (Sunni) while others believed that only members of Muhammad’s lineage could rightfully lead the community (Shia). While the Five Pillars created a new found unity of Arabs and won many converts, tension over leadership remained a problem for thirty years until the Umayyad clan formed a dynastic caliphate.Islam
10 Umayyad An “Arab Caliphate” & conquest state From bedouins to Arab garrison administratorsThe Umayyad spread largely due to the absence of strong opposition. North Africa and Spain were fragmented after the fall of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine and Persia Empires were weakened by centuries of conflict between each other. This allowed the Arab Umayyad to conflict a diverse populace from Spain & North Africa through Persia & the borders of India.The Umayyad were then forced to address administering government to such a diverse group of people. Loyal Arab conquerors and generals frequently were rewarded with posts at provincial governors. Since the government was primarily funded by the plunders of war, the Arabs had little incentive to actively spread the religion to non-Arabs. This led to Arabs governing from garrisons and many localities maintaining many of their own local laws and officials. In addition to the income generated by plunder, the Umayyad also needed state revenue, but Islamic law largely eliminated taxes outside of annual charity. In order maintain funding, non-Arabs who converted to Islam were often not afforded these tax benefits.Socially, the Umayyad realm gave preferential status to Arab Muslims, who dominated bureaucratic posts and ownership of large tracts of land. Late the Umayyad period, non-Arab Muslims outnumbered Arabs and approximately 90% of population did not fall into either category as they were non-Muslims. Since Sharia law and judges largely applied only to Muslims, many Jews and Christians maintained many of their customs. Because Muslims were not to be enslaved, a powerful trade of non-Muslims developed to provide slave labor to the empire.The systematic difference in treatment of Arab Muslims and non-Arab Muslims ultimately led to a revolt that toppled the Umayyad regime. As the Abbasid took control of the empire, the one surviving Umayyad claimant fled to Spain and established an autonomous Umayyad Caliphate in Spanish Cordoba.Umayyad
11 Abbasid An “Islamic Caliphate” Government Economy Inherit a large empire & seek to integrate society through conversion to IslamGovernmentMore bureaucratic – VizirYet, Political weakness = fragmentation after 945EconomyTrade revenue & exchange fostered scientific advancesInclusion of Africa and South/SE Asia into more global networkThe Abbasid, having deposed the Umayyad, sought to integrate the diverse elements of society into the empire more fully. This was largely done by actively seeking converts and allowing non-Arab converts to reach high government posts and military leadership. The Abbasid also sought for a time to important government administration by centralizing authority in Baghdad and less in the hands of provincial governors. This is best typified by the creation of the vizir (chief minister).In time political weakness increased dramatically. Rival siblings and their mercenary armies often created succession problems and destabilized the empire. Increasingly caliphs became less interested in day-to-day administration. Now that Arab identity was de-emphasized, regionalism replaced the predominant loyalty of much of the populace. With coupled with succession problems and disinterested caliphs, the outer reaches of the empire began to break away from Abbasid leadership.When Baghdad was created as the capital city, this shift toward Persia represented a shift toward Persian culture and outside influence. Non-Arab generals and mercenary armies in the absence of conquest often exercised either much provincial control or control over the caliph. In fact, provincial generals were often given responsibility to collect taxes, so these regional militaries acted autonomously. Turks of Central Asia often converted to Islam and acted as trade intermediaries, and Turkish cavalry forces were recruited to the army. This migratory pattern and wealth of Baghdad drew Seljuk Turks and then Ottoman Turks into the empire further removing the Caliph from authority. The position of caliph was in fact reduced to a puppet, particularly after 945.During the Abbasid period, agricultural productivity boomed. Irrigation and infrastructure improvements of the late Umayyad and early Abbasid led to higher yields and thus more trade. Once the Islamic Empires reached the peak of their expansion, cultural diffusion quickened. Indian numerals, sugar, melons, and citrus all flowed throughout Dar al-Islam. Arab lateen sails and dhows led Arab mariners to increasingly control Indian Ocean trade further connecting East Africa, South Asia, and SE Asia. Camel caravans traversed the Sahara pulling West African trading states into the hemispheric economy. Scholars and scientists in Baghdad observed the stars, made medical advances, and preserved Greek texts.Impact on India:Impact on SE Asia:Impact on East Africa:Impact on West Africa:Abbasid
13 Compare Umayyad & Abbasid? Reasons for Similarities?Reasons for Differences?Compare Umayyad & Abbasid?
14 Analyze the changes and continuities in the role of Christianity in Western Europe. ???
15 Periodization 500-1000 = Early Middle Ages = High Middle Ages= Late Middle AgesPeriodization
16 Role of Christianity – Early Medieval Christianity acted as consolidating forceLittle central political control, so church provided some leadership modeled after Roman administrationCharlemagne & crowningSpread throughout Europe due to emotional comfortsIntellectual beaconRole of Christianity – Early Medieval
17 c1000 CE Western Europe transitions Moldboard plow & 3-field system Population growthUrbanization & interactionc1000 CE
18 Role of Christianity – High Medieval Christianity loses some political influence, but maintains intellectual dominanceMonarchies grow more powerful, yet church calls for CrusadesScholasticism, Thomas Aquinas, & universitiesEconomy recovers – trade & urbanizationRole of Christianity – High Medieval
19 CCOT of Christianity’s Role? Changes?Continuities?CCOT of Christianity’s Role?
20 CCOT of Christianity’s Role? Reasons for CCOT?Context?CCOT of Christianity’s Role?
22 Return China to era of greatness after Sui restore order Tang:Politically powerfulBuddhism to Neo-Confucian backlashSong:Economic & cultural growthFostered spread of civilization in East Asia & European explorationTang-Song China
23 Continuation of Eastern Roman Empire blending Roman, Greek, & Christian values Highly bureaucraticCentered on Constantinople & Silk Road tradeFostered spread of civilization to Russia & acted as bridge/barrierByzantium
25 Compare Tang-Song China & Byzantium? Similarities?Differences?Compare Tang-Song China & Byzantium?
26 Compare Tang-Song China & Byzantium? Reasons for Similarities?Reasons for Differences?Compare Tang-Song China & Byzantium?
27 Analyze the changes and continuities in the role of women in Afro-Eurasia. ???
28 Spreading of belief systems often meant decline in women’s status Middle EastBedouin -> Muhammad -> AbbasidNorth Africa, Spain – exception: West AfricaEast AsiaBuddhism -> Neo-ConfucianismKorea, Japan – exception: VietnamRole of Women
29 CCOT of Women’s Role in Afro-Eurasia? Changes?Continuities?CCOT of Women’s Role in Afro-Eurasia?
30 CCOT of Women’s Role in Afro-Eurasia? Context?Aztecs & Incas?CCOT of Women’s Role in Afro-Eurasia?
31 Americas Women enjoyed more freedom Importance in farming due to lack of draft animals & wheelAztecsIncasTribute stateSacrificesCornIncan socialismSacrificesPotatoAmericas
32 ________________ ________________ 945 CE ________________1054 CE ________________________________ s CE________________ ________________1127 CE ________________________________ CE618 CE ________________________________ CE750 CE ________________________________ CE________________ CE________________ CE1300s CE ________________ ________________________________ CE________________ CE