From 1066 on... History and Literature! pp. 50,51,52,53,54
The French conquest! In 1066 at the Battle of Hastings, the Normans (Norse people who had settled in the north of France) defeated the English and started a centuries-long conquest of England These Normans were leaded by William the Conqueror
Main effects of the Norman conquest Introduction of the Feudal system French becomes official language of politics and power and exerts enormous influence on Old English England begins unifying under a French political system. The king of France was also the King of England.
Feudal Society Barons (owners of the lands, loyal to the king) Knights Peasants (bound to the land and the lord of the land)
The Domesday Book To acquire knowledge of his new possessions, William encouraged a survey: properties, lands, animals and people = CENSUS (censimento)! Unique for that time! why? For fiscal, economical reasons!!!
The Plantagenets: Henry II (1154-1189) He ruled over England and a large portion of France + He married Eleanor of Aquitaine (more french territories!) Interested in improving the system of justice
Henry II Constitutions of Clarendon: clergy judged also by the king’s court. Assassination of Thomas Becket. Common Law.
Richard I & John Lackland Richard I - The Lionheart- (1189-1199) interested in personal glory and military expeditions (Third Crusade). He died in France defending the English lands. John Lackland (1199-1216), his brother. He oppressed the people with excessive taxes. He was forced by the barons to sign the Magna Charta.
1215 Magna Charta Very important document. Proposed by the noble barons: The King could not impose new taxes without the barons’ permission. First step towards a less absolute monarchy!
From Anglo-Norman to Middle English Literature evolution pp. 68, 70
Changes... Changes in Language > Changes in Literature. French: language of the upper-classes for diplomacy, politics and literature (latin too). Old English > language for laboureres and servants (illiterate). DUALISTIC LINGUISTICAL SITUATION
Changes in Poetry Metrical system based on alliteration to metrical system based on regular lines with a precise number of syllables rhymes New literary taste based on the French fashion: Romances, Chansons de Geste,
Middle English After a period where literary works were composed in French or Latin, a new national production arose. It was written in Middle English, the evolution of Old English + French influences + Latin. Middle English is more similar to contemporary English than Old English
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400) pp. 80,81,82,84,85,86
Life: Born in London. Son of a wine merchant. He worked as a diplomat at court. He travelled a lot (France, Italy), both during the Hundred Years’ war and after it. He’s buried in Westminster Abbey.
Literary Production Chaucer’s Literary production is generally divided into 3 different period. 1 French period. 2 Italian period. 3 ENGLISH period
The Canterbury Tales One of the first work in Middle English: original English production, no influences from other literatures!!! It could be undestood and listened by a large portion of people.
What is it? A collection of stories, contained by a frame (crf. Decameron). Pilgrimage London - Canterbury 29 Pilgrims Each pilgrim tells a story in order to make the pilgrimage less boring.
The Pilgrims Feudal world: (knight, esquire etc) Religious world: (nun, priests, friar, prioress) third group = various (merchants of all kinds, plowman etc) Chaucer (the poet) is one of them => Chaucer autor/character
The Pilgrims 2 The Canterbury Tales are important because they give a vivid portrait of the 14th century MIDDLE CLASS or BORGEOISIE. A new social status which was gaining importance in that period. Each character is carefully described.
Literary Elements The Canterbury Tales are written in poetry Meter: iambic pentameter (unstressed/stressed) Structure: couplets Stories: fabliaux, novellas, courtly love,