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Chapter 13 Violence and Abuse in Relationships

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1 Chapter 13 Violence and Abuse in Relationships

2 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Chapter Outline
Nature of Relationship Abuse Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Sexual Abuse in Undergraduate Relationships Abuse in Marriage Relationships Effects of Abuse The Cycle of Abuse General Child Abuse Child Sexual Abuse Parent, Sibling, and Elder Abuse The Future of Violence and Abuse in Relationship

3 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Introduction
Quote: “Domestic violence causes far more pain than the visible marks of bruises and scars. It is devastating to be abused by someone that you love and think loves you in return.” Dianne Feinstein, U.S. Senator Discussion: What are all the different types of violence that can occur in a relationship? What is the most common form of abuse?

4 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Introduction
True or False? As of 2006, a Pentagon survey of the Army, Navy, and Air Force military academies reported virtual elimination of sexual harassment of women.

5 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Introduction
Answer: FALSE Half of the women in the Army, Navy, and Air Force academies in a 2004 Pentagon survey reported being sexually harassed.

6 Nature of Relationship Abuse Violence and Homicide
Violence: intentional infliction of physical harm by either partner on the other Intimate-Partner Violence Situational Couple Violence Intimate Terrorism Battered Woman Syndrome Uxoricide Intimate Partner Homicide Filicide Parricide Siblicide

7 Nature of Relationship Abuse Emotional Abuse
Emotional abuse: Designed to denigrate the partner, reduce the partner’s status, and make the partner vulnerable, so that the abuser has more control Examples of emotional abuse: Yelling and screaming for intimidation Staying angry until the partner gives in Requiring an account of the partner’s time Treating the partner with contempt Making the partner feel stupid Withholding emotional and physical contact

8 Nature of Relationship Abuse Female Abuse of a Partner
A review of literature found that women’s physical violence may be just as prevalent as men’s violence but is more likely to be motivated by self-defense and fear. Men’s physical violence is more likely to be driven by control motives.

9 Nature of Relationship Abuse Spiritual Abuse
Spiritual Abuse is defined as any attempt to impair the woman’s spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being. Ways in which men spiritually abuse their partners include: Belittling their spiritual worth Preventing them from performing spiritual acts Causing them to transgress spiritual obligations

10 Nature of Relationship Abuse Stalking in Person
Stalking is defined as unwanted following or harassment that induces fear in a target person. In about 80% of the cases, the stalker is a heterosexual male who follows his previous lover. Women who stalk are more likely to target a married male.

11 Nature of Relationship Abuse Stalking in Person
Although various strategies have been identified, additional research is needed on how to manage unwanted attention. Make a direct statement to the person: “I’m not interested in dating you.” Seek protection through formal channels, e.g., restraining order Avoid the perpetrator: ignore, don’t talk to, or hang up if they call Use formal coping methods: seek professional help

12 Nature of Relationship Abuse Stalking Online - Cybervictimization
Cybervicitmization – a jilted person may send a lover threatening s, computer viruses, or junk mail (spamming). People typically respond in eight ways to being rejected Hyper intimacy Relentless electronic contacts Interactional contacts Surveillance Invasion Harassment or intimidation Threat or coercion Aggression or violence

13 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Cultural Factors
Violence in the Media Corporal Punishment Gender Inequality View of Women and Children as Property Stress

14 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Community Factors
Social Isolation Poverty Inaccessible or Unaffordable Community Services

15 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Individual Factors
Dependency Jealousy Need to control Unhappiness and dissatisfaction Anger and aggressiveness Quick involvement Blaming others for problems Jekyll-and-Hyde personality Isolation Alcohol and other drug use Emotional deficit Criminal/Psychiatric Background

16 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Family Factors
Child abuse in family of origin Family conflict Parents who abused each other

17 Sexual Abuse in Undergraduate Relationships
Acquaintance rape is nonconsensual sex between adults who know each other. Date rape refers to nonconsensual sex between people who are dating or on a date. Alcohol and rape: Rophypnol—”Date Rape Drug” causes profound, prolonged sedation and short-term memory loss. Use rape prevention techniques

18 Abuse in Marriage Relationships
General abuse The ways in which spouses are abusive toward each other resemble the abusive behavior of unmarried couples. Rape in marriage Marital Rape: Forced sex by a spouse my take the form of sexual intercourse, fellatio, or anal intercourse.

19 Effects of Abuse Effects of partner abuse on victims
Effects of partner abuse on children Some women are abused during their pregnancy, resulting in a high rate of miscarriage and birth defects. Negative effects may also accrue to children who witness domestic abuse. It is not unusual for children to observe and become involved in adult domestic violence.

20 The Cycle of Abuse

21 The Cycle of Abuse Why Victims Stay in Abusive Relationships?
Emotional attachment to abusive partner The abuse is only part of the relationship The presence of children Entrapped in an abusive relationship and unable to extricate oneself from the abusive partner because of: Fear of loneliness Love and hope Emotional and economic dependency Commitment to the relationship A view of violence as legitimate Guilt and fear Isolation

22 Strategies Abused Women Use in Coping with Abuse
Self-Talk Keeping It at Bay Taking Blame Spirituality Release Drugs and or Alcohol Thoughts of Death

23 How One Leaves an Abusive Relationship
The decision to leave often follows the acknowledgement that one has had enough, and the belief that one must withdraw and move on since the relationship will only deteriorate. Safety Plans: Identifying a safe place to go Telling friends or neighbors about the violence and requesting they call the police Storing an escape kit

24 Treatment of Partner Abusers
Treatment involves: Teaching responsibility to the abuser for the abusive behavior Developing empathy for their partner’s victimization Reducing their dependency on their partners Improving their communication skills

25 General Child Abuse Child abuse is the interaction or lack of interaction between a child and his or her parents or caregiver that results in nonaccidental harm to the child’s physical or psychological well-being. Child abuse includes physical abuse, verbal abuse, and neglect.

26 Child Abuse and Neglect Cases: 2008

27 Factors Contributing to General Child Abuse
Parental psychopathology Unrealistic expectations History of abuse Displacement of aggression Social isolation Disability of a child

28 Factors Contributing to General Child Abuse
Other Factors: The pregnancy is premarital or unplanned, and the father or mother does not want the child. Child-rearing techniques are harsh. Mother-infant attachment is lacking. The parents are unemployed. Abuse between the husband and wife is present. The children are adopted or are foster children.

29 Effects of General Child Abuse
Researchers have found that children who have been abused are more likely to display the following (Reyome, 2010): Few close social relationships Communication problems and learning disabilities Aggression, low self-esteem, depression, and low academic achievement Increased risk of alcohol or substance abuse and suicidal tendencies as adults

30 Child Sexual Abuse In extrafamilial child sexual abuse, the perpetrator is someone outside the family. A more frequent type of child sexual abuse is intrafamilial child sexual abuse (formerly referred to in professional literature as incest).

31 Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
Associated with being withdrawn, anxious, and depressed. Daughters of mothers who have been sexually abused are 3.6 times more likely to be sexually victimized. Spouses who were physically and sexually abused as children report lower martial satisfaction, higher individual stress, and lower family cohesion. Adult males who were sexually abused as children are more likely to become child molesters themselves.

32 Strategies to Reduce Child Sexual Abuse
Regendering cultural roles Providing specific information on sex abuse Improving the safety of neighborhoods Providing sexuality education at school Promoting public awareness campaigns

33 Parent and Sibling Abuse
Parent abuse It is not uncommon for teenage and younger children to physically and verbally lash out at their parents. Sibling abuse Most incidents of sibling violence consist of slaps, pushes, kicks, bites, and punches.

34 Elder Abuse As increasing numbers of the elderly end up in the care of their children; abuse of the elderly, though infrequent, is likely to increase. Neglect Physical abuse Psychological abuse Social abuse Legal abuse

35 Quick Quiz Which of the following is not a factor in domestic abuse?
abuse in the family of origin egalitarian gender roles cultural tolerance of violence violence seen as a way to solve problems ANS: B

36 Quick Quiz What is the key reason for staying in an abusive relationship? guilt feeling stuck emotional dependence and love financial dependency ANS: C

37 Quick Quiz What is a characteristic of a woman who leaves an abusive relationship? isolation from family disengaging from the husband dependence on husband feeling they deserved the abuse ANS: B

38 Quick Quiz Which of the following is not a negative effect of child abuse? PTSD Withdrawal behavior from early forced sex Spouses who were physically and sexually abused report lower marital satisfaction Children who were abused are more likely to be murderers ANS: D

39 Quick Quiz Which of the following are common types of elder abuse?
Neglect Physical abuse Social abuse All of the above ANS: D


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