2 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Chapter Outline Nature of Relationship AbuseExplanations for Violence/Abuse in RelationshipsSexual Abuse in Undergraduate RelationshipsAbuse in Marriage RelationshipsEffects of AbuseThe Cycle of AbuseGeneral Child AbuseChild Sexual AbuseParent, Sibling, and Elder AbuseThe Future of Violence and Abuse in Relationship
3 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Introduction Quote: “Domestic violence causes far more pain than the visible marks of bruises and scars. It is devastating to be abused by someone that you love and think loves you in return.”Dianne Feinstein, U.S. SenatorDiscussion: What are all the different types of violence that can occur in a relationship? What is the most common form of abuse?
4 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Introduction True or False?As of 2006, a Pentagon survey of the Army, Navy, and Air Force military academies reported virtual elimination of sexual harassment of women.
5 Chapter 13: Violence and Abuse in Relationships Introduction Answer: FALSEHalf of the women in the Army, Navy, and Air Force academies in a 2004 Pentagon survey reported being sexually harassed.
6 Nature of Relationship Abuse Violence and Homicide Violence: intentional infliction of physical harm by either partner on the otherIntimate-Partner ViolenceSituational Couple ViolenceIntimate TerrorismBattered Woman SyndromeUxoricideIntimate Partner HomicideFilicideParricideSiblicide
7 Nature of Relationship Abuse Emotional Abuse Emotional abuse: Designed to denigrate the partner, reduce the partner’s status, and make the partner vulnerable, so that the abuser has more controlExamples of emotional abuse:Yelling and screaming for intimidationStaying angry until the partner gives inRequiring an account of the partner’s timeTreating the partner with contemptMaking the partner feel stupidWithholding emotional and physical contact
8 Nature of Relationship Abuse Female Abuse of a Partner A review of literature found that women’s physical violence may be just as prevalent as men’s violence but is more likely to be motivated by self-defense and fear.Men’s physical violence is more likely to be driven by control motives.
9 Nature of Relationship Abuse Spiritual Abuse Spiritual Abuse is defined as any attempt to impair the woman’s spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being.Ways in which men spiritually abuse their partners include:Belittling their spiritual worthPreventing them from performing spiritual actsCausing them to transgress spiritual obligations
10 Nature of Relationship Abuse Stalking in Person Stalking is defined as unwanted following or harassment that induces fear in a target person.In about 80% of the cases, the stalker is a heterosexual male who follows his previous lover.Women who stalk are more likely to target a married male.
11 Nature of Relationship Abuse Stalking in Person Although various strategies have been identified, additional research is needed on how to manage unwanted attention.Make a direct statement to the person: “I’m not interested in dating you.”Seek protection through formal channels, e.g., restraining orderAvoid the perpetrator: ignore, don’t talk to, or hang up if they callUse formal coping methods: seek professional help
12 Nature of Relationship Abuse Stalking Online - Cybervictimization Cybervicitmization – a jilted person may send a lover threatening s, computer viruses, or junk mail (spamming).People typically respond in eight ways to being rejectedHyper intimacyRelentless electronic contactsInteractional contactsSurveillanceInvasionHarassment or intimidationThreat or coercionAggression or violence
13 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Cultural Factors Violence in the MediaCorporal PunishmentGender InequalityView of Women and Children as PropertyStress
14 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Community Factors Social IsolationPovertyInaccessible or Unaffordable Community Services
15 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Individual Factors DependencyJealousyNeed to controlUnhappiness and dissatisfactionAnger and aggressivenessQuick involvementBlaming others for problemsJekyll-and-Hyde personalityIsolationAlcohol and other drug useEmotional deficitCriminal/Psychiatric Background
16 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Family Factors Child abuse in family of originFamily conflictParents who abused each other
17 Sexual Abuse in Undergraduate Relationships Acquaintance rape is nonconsensual sex between adults who know each other.Date rape refers to nonconsensual sex between people who are dating or on a date.Alcohol and rape:Rophypnol—”Date Rape Drug” causes profound, prolonged sedation and short-term memory loss.Use rape prevention techniques
18 Abuse in Marriage Relationships General abuseThe ways in which spouses are abusive toward each other resemble the abusive behavior of unmarried couples.Rape in marriageMarital Rape: Forced sex by a spouse my take the form of sexual intercourse, fellatio, or anal intercourse.
19 Effects of Abuse Effects of partner abuse on victims Effects of partner abuse on childrenSome women are abused during their pregnancy, resulting in a high rate of miscarriage and birth defects.Negative effects may also accrue to children who witness domestic abuse.It is not unusual for children to observe and become involved in adult domestic violence.
21 The Cycle of Abuse Why Victims Stay in Abusive Relationships? Emotional attachment to abusive partnerThe abuse is only part of the relationshipThe presence of childrenEntrapped in an abusive relationship and unable to extricate oneself from the abusive partner because of:Fear of lonelinessLove and hopeEmotional and economic dependencyCommitment to the relationshipA view of violence as legitimateGuilt and fearIsolation
22 Strategies Abused Women Use in Coping with Abuse Self-TalkKeeping It at BayTaking BlameSpiritualityReleaseDrugs and or AlcoholThoughts of Death
23 How One Leaves an Abusive Relationship The decision to leave often follows the acknowledgement that one has had enough, and the belief that one must withdraw and move on since the relationship will only deteriorate.Safety Plans:Identifying a safe place to goTelling friends or neighbors about the violence and requesting they call the policeStoring an escape kit
24 Treatment of Partner Abusers Treatment involves:Teaching responsibility to the abuser for the abusive behaviorDeveloping empathy for their partner’s victimizationReducing their dependency on their partnersImproving their communication skills
25 General Child AbuseChild abuse is the interaction or lack of interaction between a child and his or her parents or caregiver that results in nonaccidental harm to the child’s physical or psychological well-being.Child abuse includes physical abuse, verbal abuse, and neglect.
27 Factors Contributing to General Child Abuse Parental psychopathologyUnrealistic expectationsHistory of abuseDisplacement of aggressionSocial isolationDisability of a child
28 Factors Contributing to General Child Abuse Other Factors:The pregnancy is premarital or unplanned, and the father or mother does not want the child.Child-rearing techniques are harsh.Mother-infant attachment is lacking.The parents are unemployed.Abuse between the husband and wife is present.The children are adopted or are foster children.
29 Effects of General Child Abuse Researchers have found that children who have been abused are more likely to display the following (Reyome, 2010):Few close social relationshipsCommunication problems and learning disabilitiesAggression, low self-esteem, depression, and low academic achievementIncreased risk of alcohol or substance abuse and suicidal tendencies as adults
30 Child Sexual AbuseIn extrafamilial child sexual abuse, the perpetrator is someone outside the family.A more frequent type of child sexual abuse is intrafamilial child sexual abuse (formerly referred to in professional literature as incest).
31 Effects of Child Sexual Abuse Associated with being withdrawn, anxious, and depressed.Daughters of mothers who have been sexually abused are 3.6 times more likely to be sexually victimized.Spouses who were physically and sexually abused as children report lower martial satisfaction, higher individual stress, and lower family cohesion.Adult males who were sexually abused as children are more likely to become child molesters themselves.
32 Strategies to Reduce Child Sexual Abuse Regendering cultural rolesProviding specific information on sex abuseImproving the safety of neighborhoodsProviding sexuality education at schoolPromoting public awareness campaigns
33 Parent and Sibling Abuse Parent abuseIt is not uncommon for teenage and younger children to physically and verbally lash out at their parents.Sibling abuseMost incidents of sibling violence consist of slaps, pushes, kicks, bites, and punches.
34 Elder AbuseAs increasing numbers of the elderly end up in the care of their children; abuse of the elderly, though infrequent, is likely to increase.NeglectPhysical abusePsychological abuseSocial abuseLegal abuse
35 Quick Quiz Which of the following is not a factor in domestic abuse? abuse in the family of originegalitarian gender rolescultural tolerance of violenceviolence seen as a way to solve problemsANS: B
36 Quick QuizWhat is the key reason for staying in an abusive relationship?guiltfeeling stuckemotional dependence and lovefinancial dependencyANS: C
37 Quick QuizWhat is a characteristic of a woman who leaves an abusive relationship?isolation from familydisengaging from the husbanddependence on husbandfeeling they deserved the abuseANS: B
38 Quick QuizWhich of the following is not a negative effect of child abuse?PTSDWithdrawal behavior from early forced sexSpouses who were physically and sexually abused report lower marital satisfactionChildren who were abused are more likely to be murderersANS: D
39 Quick Quiz Which of the following are common types of elder abuse? NeglectPhysical abuseSocial abuseAll of the aboveANS: D