Presentation on theme: "Resilience and its Relationship with the 5-Step Method Professor Richard Velleman Emeritus Professor of Mental Health Research, University of Bath, UK."— Presentation transcript:
Resilience and its Relationship with the 5-Step Method Professor Richard Velleman Emeritus Professor of Mental Health Research, University of Bath, UK and Senior Research Consultant, Sangath Community NGO, Goa, India 1
2 Resilience is difficult to define, being differingly conceptualised as a process and as an outcome, as a property that individuals possess and as something that may or may not develop and change, as a global (set of) characteristics and as an attribute which may show itself differently in different domains. Resilience can mean: better than expected developmental outcomes; competence when under stress; or positive functioning indicating recovery from trauma.
3 Nevertheless, Psychological Resilience has been defined as “the capacity to adapt to and overcome stress and adversity” (American Psychological Association, 2014). Gilligan has similarly defined resilience as, “the capacity to transcend adversity” (1997, p 14). Both of these definitions accept that being resilient does not mean going through life without experiencing stress and pain. Rather, individuals demonstrate resilience when they can face difficult experiences and rise above them without major difficulty.
4 Hence, ‘resilience’ has a number of core characteristics: It is a process rather than a trait; It is not a rare ability but can be found in many (probably most) individuals; People may be resilient in some areas and not in others; It is also not something that people are either born with or not; it can be learned and developed across the life span through cognitive processing, self- management skills and knowledge; Supportive relationships (with parents, peers and others), as well as cultural beliefs and traditions, are all crucial.
5 In sum, it is a fluid process; it is not a single variable; it is open to change over time and according to circumstance, and it is influenced by a range of individual, family, environmental and societal variables. So, let’s agree that it is the capacity to adapt to and overcome stress and adversity.
6 Why might children of parents with substance problems develop resilience? How might this show itself as children? How might it show itself as adults?
7 Mix and balance of Risk Factors and Protective Factors Risk Factors: High levels of violence Experiencing or witnessing neglect or abuse – physical, verbal or sexual Poor and/or neglectful parenting Inconsistency from one or both parents Having to adopt responsible or parenting roles at an early age Feeling negative emotions such as shame, guilt, fear, anger and embarrassment Possible neurodevelopmental consequences of substance misuse in pregnancy
8 Protective Factors: Stable adult figure (usually non-substance misuser) Close positive bond with at least one adult in a caring role (e.g. parents, older siblings, g/parents); A good support network beyond this; Little separation from primary carer in first year; Parents’ positive care style and characteristics; Engagement in a range of activities; Positive opportunities at times of life transition; Gaining experience of success and achievement; Individual temperament; Continuing family cohesion and harmony in the face of the misuse and its related effects (e.g. domestic violence, serious mental health problems)
9 Evidence of resilience: Feelings: High self-esteem and confidence Feeling that there are choices Feeling in control of own life Actions/abilities: Self-efficacy An ability to deal with change Skills and values that lead to good use of personal ability A good range of problem-solving skills Deliberate planning by the child that their adult life will be different
10 At the moment, the 5-Step Method is about reducing stress & strain and improving coping & support. How might we introduce more ideas of reducing risk factors and increasing protective ones, to also make family members more resilient? Are there tools/techniques to use and which steps could we introduce them in?
11 We can raise and discuss: What are your risk factors, and how can you take any action to reduce them. Eg reduce risks of violence, or aggression, And what are the risk factors for your children, and how can you take any action to reduce them. Eg reduce inconsistency in parenting, reduce overt disharmony, enable children to be children and not take on too many adult roles
12 AND: What are your protective factors, and how can you take any action to increase them. Eg Ensure there are stable figures around; ensure you have a close positive bond with at least one supportive adult; ensure you have a good support network beyond this; ensure you engage in a range of activities; ensure you gain experience of success and achievement And what are the protective factors for your children, and how can you take any action to increase them. Eg Ensure there are stable adult figures around; ensure they have a close positive bond with at least one supportive adult; ensure that they have a good support network beyond this; ensure your parenting style is positive; ensure they engage in a range of activities; ensure they gain experience of success and achievement; ensure continuing family cohesion and harmony in the face of the misuse and its related effects
13 We can introduce these ideas throughout the 5- Step Method, especially in steps 2-5. We already discuss many things in steps 2 & 3 & 4 (Information & coping & support).
14 What are the TWO most positive outcomes to be achieved from building resilience with family members? What blocks/barriers might present in encouraging resilience – prioritise maximum TWO and suggest solutions