Presentation on theme: "Central Business District Change Decentralisation causes & effects. Responses to decline. Decentralisation causes & effects. Responses to decline."— Presentation transcript:
Central Business District Change Decentralisation causes & effects. Responses to decline. Decentralisation causes & effects. Responses to decline.
Commercial centre »Historical centre of commercial activity dating back to markets. »Location of retail, office- based industry & leisure.
Office based industry »The CBD contains the greatest concentration of high-rise buildings. »1960’s concrete offices exist in close proximity to modern offices. »Accessibility for the workforce is a vital locational factor affecting office- based industry. Traditionally in CBD.
First wave »DIY & home furnishings. »Large scale warehouse-style developments. »Links to contractors trade. »Access for large vehicles.
Second wave »Electrical goods stores. »Scale significant. »Agglomeration with home furnishings. »Supermarkets > superstores. »Continental style. »Large, free & uncongested car parks. »Under one roof.
Third wave »Comparison goods from the high street. »Greater variety & speciality. »Economies of scale. »Adding to new, peripheral business districts.
Leisure »US influenced, large scale restaurants or drive-through. »Services required where consumers are shopping or living.
Assimilation & discard »CBD is characterized by rapid change. »Zones of assimilation: growth of CBD or positive change of function. »Zones of discard: Decline, vacancy & dereliction.
Closure of independent retailers & success of national chains »High CBD rents require high profits. »Independent retailers suffer from lack of passing trade and can’t afford the large plots in retail parks. »Yates’ Wine Lodge in Reading is located in the old Post Office.
Decentralization »Modern growth of out of town retail parks and superstores is threatening city centre trade. »Large, chain stores have moved to these locations leaving small, independent outlets behind.
Business Parks »Like retail, offices are increasingly located at the rural- urban fringe. »Land is cheap, there is room for expansion and buildings can be purpose built. »Peripheral locations are now the most accessible and have higher quality environments.
Lakeside regional shopping centre, Thurrock, Essex. »Over 320 shops, 4 major departments stores, 30 cafes and restaurants, a 7 screen multiplex cinema, a chapel, a 26 acre lake complete with PADI certified diving school complex, and parking for 13,000 cars and 250 coaches. »Junction 30/31 M25.
Undercover Shopping centres »The response in the CBD has been led by the construction of modern, covered shopping malls. »They offer comfort, safety and other facilities such as toilets under one roof.
Accessibility & beautification »The CBD needs to become a more accessible place for motorist & pedestrian. »One-way roads, improved car parking & pedestrianization are used. »Flowerbeds, signposts, cobblestones &graffiti removal improve the environment.
Leisure & image enhancement »City centres need to be re-sold as places of entertainment. »Street vendors, pavement cafes & festivals all help. »New leisure districts incorporating cinemas, restaurants & bars are now common.