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Congestion in Data Networks

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Presentation on theme: "Congestion in Data Networks"— Presentation transcript:

1 Congestion in Data Networks
Data Communications Congestion in Data Networks

2 What Is Congestion? Congestion occurs when the number of packets being transmitted through the network approaches the packet handling capacity of the network Congestion control aims to keep number of packets below level at which performance falls off dramatically Data network is a network of queues Generally 80% utilization is critical Finite queues mean data may be lost

3 Figure 23.5 Incoming packet

4 Interaction of Queues

5 Effects of Congestion Packets arriving are stored at input buffers (not ATM) Routing decision made Packet moves to output buffer Packets queued for output transmitted as fast as possible Statistical time division multiplexing If packets arrive too fast to be routed, or to be output, buffers will fill Can discard packets Can use flow control Can propagate congestion through network

6 Ideal Performance Top: As load increases, throughput directly increases Middle: As load increases, delay increases Bottom: Power is ratio of throughput to delay

7 Practical Performance
Ideal assumes infinite buffers and no overhead Unfortunately, buffers are finite Additional overhead occurs in exchanging congestion control messages

8 Effects of Congestion - No Control

9 Congestion Control Objectives
In general, we want to: Minimize discards Maintain agreed QoS (if applicable) Minimize probability of one end user monopoly over other end users Simple to implement Little overhead on network or user Create minimal additional traffic Distribute resources fairly Limit spread of congestion Operate effectively regardless of traffic flow Minimum impact on other systems Minimize variance in QoS

10 Basic Mechanisms for Congestion Control
Open-Loop Congestion Control (rely on other layers for feedback and control) Retransmission policy - a good policy can reduce congestion Window policy - sel-reject better than go-back-N; use a bigger window size Acknowledgment policy - don’t ack each packet individually Discard policy - a good policy by routers may prevent congestion and at the same time may not harm the integrity of the transmission Admission policy - QOS mechanism

11 Basic Mechanisms for Congestion Control
Closed-Loop Congestion Control Backpressure - when a router is congested, it informs the previous upstream router to reduce the rate of outgoing packets Choke packet of choke point - sent by router to source, similar to ICMP’s source quench packet Implicit signaling - look for delay in some other action Explicit signaling - router sends an explicit signal Backward signaling - bit is set in packet moving in the direction opposite to the congestion Forward signaling - bit is set in packet moving in the direction of congestion. Receiver can use policy such as slowing down acks to alleviate congestion

12 Basic Mechanisms for Congestion Control (visual examples)

13 Backpressure If node becomes congested it can slow down or halt flow of packets from other nodes May mean that other nodes have to apply control on incoming packet rates Propagates back to source Can restrict to logical connections generating most traffic Used in connection oriented that allow hop by hop congestion control (e.g. X.25) Not used in ATM or frame relay Only recently developed for IPv6 (PRI field)

14 Choke Packet Control packet Rather crude mechanism
Generated at congested node Sent to source node e.g. ICMP source quench From router or destination Source cuts back until no more source quench message Sent for every discarded packet, or anticipated Rather crude mechanism

15 Implicit Congestion Signaling
Transmission delay may increase with congestion Packets may be discarded Source can detect these as implicit indications of congestion (source is responsible, not network) Useful on connectionless (datagram) networks e.g. IP based (TCP includes congestion and flow control) Used in frame relay LAPF

16 Explicit Congestion Signaling
Network alerts end systems of increasing congestion Used on connection-oriented networks End systems take steps to reduce offered load Backwards Congestion avoidance info sent in opposite direction of packet travel Forwards Congestion avoidance info sent in same direction as packet travel - when end system receives info, either sends it back to source or hands it to higher layer to take action

17 Categories of Explicit Signaling
Binary A bit set in a packet indicates congestion Credit based Indicates how many packets source may send Common for end to end flow control Rate based The source may transmit data at a rate up to the set limit Any node along the path of the connection can reduce the data rate limit in a control message to the source e.g. ATM

18 How Does TCP Handle / Avoid Congestion
How Does TCP Handle / Avoid Congestion? (details in TDC 365 and TDC 463) To Handle: TCP has a sender window size. Sender window size is minimum of receiver window size or network congestion window size. To Avoid: TCP can use Slow Start and Additive Increase - at beginning, TCP sets congestion window size to maximum segment size, then increases window size with each ack. Can also use Multiplicative Decrease - after timeout, threshold set to 1/2 previous threshold, and congestion window size reset to 1 (then slow start)

19 Figure 23.8 Multiplicative decrease

20 How Does Frame Relay Handle Congestion?
Connection management, coupled with Discard strategy Explicit signaling Implicit signaling In more detail:

21 Connection Management
Before a frame relay network allows a user to transmit data, they agree on a connection Some call this an SLA (service level agreement) Frame relay calls it the CIR (committed information rate) Committed burst size - max amount of data the network agrees to transfer, under normal conditions Excess burst size - max amount of data in excess of committed burst size Different frame relay companies have different agreements

22 Connection Management
What happens if you exceed your CIR and the network experiences congestion? Frame relay may start discarding your frames (Discard Eligible bit = 1) (Discard Strategy) Does frame relay tell you that your frames are being tossed? No. Frame relay assumes a higher layer protocol (such as TCP) will monitor lost or missing frames Frame relay could discard arbitrarily with no regard for source, but then no reward for restraint so end systems transmit as fast as possible CIR not 100% guaranteed, but network tries hard Aggregate CIR should not exceed physical data rate

23 Figure 23.1 Traffic descriptors

24 Relationship Among Congestion Parameters

25 Explicit Signaling Network alerts end systems of growing congestion
Backward explicit congestion notification Notifies the user that CA procedures should be initiated for traffic in the opposite direction; simpler Forward explicit congestion notification Notification goes forward, so end user has to somehow get signal back to other end to tell them to slow down Frame handler monitors its queues May notify some or all logical connections User response Reduce rate

26 Figure BECN

27 Figure FECN

28 Figure 23.11 Four cases of congestion

29 Implicit Signaling Implicit Congestion Notification Telecom Definition
In frame relay, inference by user equipment that congestion has occurred in the network. The inference is triggered by realization of the receiving frame relay access device (FRAD) of transmission delays. Based on block, frame or packet sequence numbers, another protocol may recognize that one or more frames have been lost in transit. Control mechanisms at the upper protocol layers of the end devices then deal with frame loss by requesting retransmissions. From:

30 What About ATM? High speed, small cell size, limited overhead bits
Requirements (difficult) Majority of traffic not amenable to flow control Feedback slow due to reduced transmission time compared with propagation delay Wide range of application demands Different traffic patterns Different network services High speed switching and transmission increases volatility

31 Latency/Speed Effects
Consider a typical ATM transmission speed of 150Mbps ~2.8x10-6 seconds to insert single cell Time to traverse network depends on propagation delay, switching delay Assume propagation at two-thirds speed of light If source and destination on opposite sides of USA, propagation time ~ 48x10-3 seconds Given implicit congestion control, by the time dropped cell notification has reached source, 7.2x106 bits have been transmitted So, this is not a good strategy for ATM

32 Cell Delay Variation For ATM voice/video, data is a stream of cells
Delay across network must be short AND Rate of delivery must be constant There will always be some variation in transit Delay cell delivery to application so that constant bit rate can be maintained to application

33 Time Re-assembly of CBR Cells D(i)=end to end delay of ith cell V(0)= estimate of amount of cell delay variation that an application can tolerate

34 Various Network Contributions to Cell Delay Variation
Packet switched networks Queuing delays Routing decision time Frame relay As above but to lesser extent ATM Less than frame relay ATM protocol designed to minimize processing overheads at switches ATM switches have very high throughput Only noticeable delay is from congestion Must not accept load that causes congestion

35 Cell Delay Variation At The UNI in ATM
Even if application produces data at fixed rate, processing at (potentially) three layers of ATM causes delay Interleaving cells from different connections Operation and maintenance signals need to be interleaved If using synchronous digital hierarchy frames, potential delays here are inserted at physical layer Can not predict these delays (See figure next slide)

36 Origins of Cell Delay Variation

37 Traffic and Congestion Control Objectives for ATM
ATM layer traffic and congestion control should support QoS classes for all foreseeable network services ATM layer traffic and congestion control should not rely on AAL protocols that are network specific, nor on higher level application specific protocols Any traffic and congestion controls should minimize network and end to end system complexity

38 Traffic Management and Congestion Control Techniques
ITU-T and ATM Forum have defined a range of traffic management functions to maintain the QoS of ATM connections: Resource management using virtual paths - separate traffic flow according to service characteristics (1) Connection admission control (2) Usage parameter control (3) Traffic shaping (4) Let’s examine these in more detail

39 Resource Management Using Virtual Paths (1)
ATM network can use the virtual path to group similar virtual channels

40 Connection Admission Control (2)
Good first line of defense User specifies traffic characteristics for new connection (VCC or VPC) by selecting a QoS Network accepts connection only if it can meet the demand Traffic contract Peak cell rate - upper bound, CBR and VBR Cell delay variation - CBR and VBR Sustainable cell rate - average rate, VBR Burst tolerance - VBR

41 Usage Parameter Control (3)
Monitor established connection to ensure traffic conforms to contract Protection of network resources from overload by one connection Done on VCC and VPC Control of peak cell rate and cell delay variation, or Control of sustainable cell rate and burst tolerance Discard cells that do not conform to traffic contract Called traffic policing

42 Traffic Shaping (4) Smooth out traffic flow and reduce cell clumping
Token bucket and leaky bucket are examples of traffic shaping Token bucket allows bursts, while leaky bucket maintains an even flow (See figures next slides)

43 Figure Token bucket

44 Token Bucket

45 Figure Leaky bucket

46 Leaky bucket keeps an average flow moving. Queue overflows?
Figure Leaky bucket implementation Leaky bucket keeps an average flow moving. Queue overflows? Discard packets. Unlike token bucket, no credit for no transmissions.

47 ATM’s Real-time Traffic Management
QoS provided for CBR, and rt-VBR is based on a traffic contract (connection admission control) and UBC (usage parameter control) There is no feedback in these systems. Cells are simply discarded. This is called open-loop control. This is not used for ABR or UBR traffic.

48 Non-real-time Traffic Management
Some applications (Web, file transfer) do not have well defined traffic characteristics Best efforts Allow these applications to share unused capacity If congestion builds, cells are dropped, eg UBR Closed loop control ABR connections share available capacity Share varies between minimum cell rate (MCR) and peak cell rate (PCR) ABR flow limited to available capacity by feedback Buffers absorb excess traffic during feedback delay Low cell loss

49 Feedback Mechanisms Transmission rate characteristics:
Allowed cell rate Minimum cell rate Peak cell rate Initial cell rate Start with ACR=ICR Adjust ACR based on feedback from network Resource management cells Congestion indication (CI) bit No increase (NI) bit Explicit cell rate (ER) field

50 Variations in Allowed Cell Rate

51 Cell Flow (RM = resource management)

52 23.7 Integrated Services Integrated Services (IntServ) is a model
used to provide QoS in the Internet at the IP layer. IntServ is a flow-based model, in that a user needs to create a flow or virtual circuit between source and destination. But IP is connectionless. How do you create a connection? Use RSVP.

53 Path messages are sent from sender (S1) to all receivers
Figure Path messages Path messages are sent from sender (S1) to all receivers (multiple if multi-cast). This establishes the path.

54 Once the path is set, receivers return Resv messages. Note
Figure Resv messages Once the path is set, receivers return Resv messages. Note how reservations are merged (next slide).

55 R3 takes the larger of the two reservations and sends that upstream.
Figure Reservation merging R3 takes the larger of the two reservations and sends that upstream.

56 Wild card filter - the router creates a single reservation for all
Figure Reservation styles Wild card filter - the router creates a single reservation for all the senders, based on the largest request. Fixed filter - the router creates a distinct reservation for each flow. Shared explicit - the router creates a single reservation which can be shared by a set of flows.

57 23.8 Differentiated Services
An alternative to Integrated Services. Produced by the IETF to create a class-based QoS model for IP. Beyond the scope of this class.

58 Meter checks to see if incoming flow matches negotiated traffic
Figure Traffic conditioner Meter checks to see if incoming flow matches negotiated traffic profile. Marker can re-mark a packet that is using best-effort delivery or down-mark a packet based on info received from meter. Shaper uses the info received from meter to reshape the traffic. Dropper works like a shaper with no buffer, discarding packets if the flow severely violates the negotiated profile.

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