Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Gas Exchange Chapter 44.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Gas Exchange Chapter 44."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gas Exchange Chapter 44

2 Learning Objectives Define Physiological Respiration, Ventilation and Perfusion Diagram the human respiratory tract and explain functions of the organs Define Tidal Volume, Vital Capacity and Residual Volume Compare and contrast negative and positive pressure breathing Describe how breathing is both a conscious and subconscious effort Describe the physiological gradient that allows for CO2 and O2 diffusion within the body Define COPD and health impact

3 Physiological Respiration
Process by which animals exchange O2 and CO2 with the environment

4 Physiological respiration
Cellular respiration Physiological respiration Respiratory surface (body surface, gills, or lungs) Mitochondrion Circulatory system Figure 44.1 The relationship between cellular respiration and physiological respiration. Respiratory medium (air or water) Fig. 44.1, p. 998

5 Breathing (Gas Exchange)
Two primary operating features of gas exchange The respiratory medium, either air or water The respiratory surface, a wetted epithelium over which gas exchange takes place

6 Respiratory Surfaces In some invertebrates, the skin is the respiratory surface In other invertebrates and all vertebrates, gills or lungs are the primary respiratory surfaces

7 Gas Exchange Simple diffusion of molecules drives exchange of gases across the respiratory surface From regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration Area of respiratory surface determines total quantity of gases exchanged by diffusion

8 Maximizing Gas Exchange
Concentration gradients of O2 and CO2 across respiratory surfaces are kept at optimal levels by ventilation and perfusion Ventilation: Movement of respiratory media over the external respiratory surface Perfusion: Movement of circulatory fluid over the internal respiratory surface

9 Air Breathers Air is high in O2 content
Allows air-breathers to maintain higher metabolic levels than water breathers Air has lower density and viscosity than water Allows air breathers to ventilate respiratory surfaces with relatively little energy

10 Insects: Tracheal System
Insects breathe by a tracheal system Air-conducting tubes (trachea) lead from the body surface (through spiracles) and branch to all body cells Gas exchange takes place in fluid-filled tips at ends of branches

11 Lungs (Air Breathers) Invaginations of the body surface
Allow air to become saturated with water before it reaches the respiratory surface Reduce water loss by evaporation

12 Lung Ventilation Positive pressure breathing (Frogs do this)
Air is forced into lungs by muscle contractions (Frogs do this) Negative pressure breathing Muscle contractions expand lungs, lowering air pressure inside Allows air to be pulled into the lungs

13 Mammalian Respiratory System
Air enters the respiratory system through the nose and mouth and passes through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea Trachea divides into two bronchi leading to lungs Within lungs, bronchi branch into bronchioles, leading into alveoli surrounded by networks of blood capillaries

14 Closes off larynx during swallowing Pleura
Nasal passages Chamber in which air is moistened, warmed, and filtered and in which sounds resonate Mouth Supplemental airway Pharynx (throat) Airway connecting nasal passages and mouth with larynx; enhances sounds; also connects with esophagus Epiglottis Closes off larynx during swallowing Pleura Double-layered membrane that separates lungs from the wall of the thoracic cavity; fluid between its two layers lubricates breathing movements Larynx (voice box) Airway where sound is produced; closed off during swallowing Trachea (windpipe) Airway connecting larynx with two bronchi that lead into the lungs Intercostal muscles Skeletal muscles between ribs that contract to fill and empty lungs Lung Lobed, elastic organ of breathing exchanges gases between internal environment and outside air Diaphragm Muscle sheet between the chest cavity and abdominal cavity that contracts to fill lungs Bronchi Increasingly branched airways leading to alveoli of lung tissue Figure 44.8 The human respiratory system, which is typical for a terrestrial mammal. Alveoli (sectioned) Bronchiole Alveoli Alveoli Pulmonary capillaries Fig. 44.8, p. 1004

15 Ventilation: Mammals Negative pressure mechanism
Air is exhaled passively Relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostal muscles between ribs Elastic recoil of lungs (pleural membranes) Deep and rapid breathing Forceful expulsion of air driven by contraction of internal intercostal muscles

16 Outward bulk flow of air Internal intercostal muscles
Inward bulk flow of air Outward bulk flow of air Internal intercostal muscles External intercostal muscles Diaphragm Figure 44.9: The respiratory movements of humans during breathing at rest. The movements of the rib cage and diaphragm fill and empty the lungs. Inhalation is powered by contractions of the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm, and exhalation is passive. During exercise or other activities characterized by deeper and more rapid breathing, contractions of the internal intercostal muscles and the abdominal muscles add force to exhalation. The X-ray images show how the volume of the lungs increases and decreases during inhalation and exhalation. Inhalation. Diaphragm contracts and moves down. The external intercostal muscles contract and lift rib cage upward and outward. The lung volume expands. Exhalation during breathing or rest. Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles return to the resting positions. Rib cage moves down. Lungs recoil passively. Fig. 44.9, p. 1005

17 Measuring Lung Ventilation
Tidal volume Amount of air moved in and out of lungs during an inhalation and exhalation Vital capacity Total volume of air a person can inhale and exhale by breathing as deeply as possible Residual volume Air remaining in the lungs after as much air as possible is exhaled

18 Control of Breathing Control mechanisms Control functions
Local chemical controls Regulation centers in the brain stem Control functions Match rate of air and blood flow in lungs Link rate and depth of breathing to body’s requirements for O2 uptake and CO2 release

19 Interneurons Regulate Breathing
Basic rhythm of breathing Produced by interneurons in the medulla When more rapid breathing is required Other interneurons in the medulla reinforce inhalation, produce forceful exhalation Fine-tuned breathing Two interneuron groups in the pons stimulate or inhibit the inhalation center in the medulla

20 Blood Gas Control Sensory receptors in medulla detect changes in levels of O2 and CO2 in blood and body fluids (aortic and carotid, too) Control centers in medulla and pons adjust rate and depth of breathing to compensate for changes in blood gases

21 O2 Transport O2 diffuses from alveolar air into blood
Partial pressure of O2 is higher in alveolar air than in blood in capillary networks surrounding alveoli Most O2 entering the blood combines with hemoglobin inside erythrocytes

22 Capillaries entering lungs
Dry inhaled air Moist exhaled air 100 40 Alveolar sacs 160 0.04 120 27 Capillaries entering lungs 40 O2 46 CO2 Alveolar sacs O2 Pulmonary veins 100 40 Pulmonary arteries CO2 100 40 40 46 O2 CO2 Start of veins in body tissues Figure 44.11 The partial pressures of O2 (pink) and CO2 (blue) in various locations in the body. Start of capillaries in body tissues 40 46 Cell 100 40 Capillaries entering tissues Cells of body tissues Less than 40 More than 46 100 O2 40 CO2 Fig , p. 1008

23 Hemoglobin and Oxygen One hemoglobin molecule can combine with four O2 molecules Large quantities of O2 combined with hemoglobin maintain a large partial pressure gradient between O2 in alveolar air and in blood

24 a. Hemoglobin saturation level in lungs
Oxygen saturation (%) Figure 44.12 Hemoglobin–O2 dissociation curves, which show the degree to which hemoglobin is saturated with O2 at increasing PO2. Body tissues PO2 (mm Hg) Alveoli In the alveoli, in which the PO2 is about 100 mm Hg and the pH is 7.4, most hemoglobin molecules are 100% saturated, meaning that almost all have bound four O2 molecules. Fig a, p. 1009

25 O2 Diffuses into Body Cells
O2 concentration in interstitial fluid and body cells is lower than in blood plasma O2 diffuses from blood into interstitial fluid, and from interstitial fluid into body cells

26 CO2 Transfer: Body Tissues
Partial pressure of CO2 is higher in tissues than in blood About 10% of CO2 dissolves in blood plasma 70% is converted into H+ and HCO3- (bicarbonate) ions 20% combines with hemoglobin

27 a. Body tissues Body cells CO2 Slow HCO3– + H+ CO2 + H2O
In body tissues, some of the CO2 released into the blood combines with water in the blood plasma to form HCO3– and H+. However, most of the CO2 diffuses into erythrocytes, where some combines directly with hemoglobin and some combines with water to form HCO3– and H+. The H+ formed by this reaction combines with hemoglobin; the HCO3– is transported out of erythrocytes to add to the HCO3– in the blood plasma. HCO3– + H+ CO2 + H2O Capillary wall Erythrocyte CO2 + H2O CO2 Fast Figure 44.13 The reactions occurring during the transfer of CO2 from body tissues to alveolar air. Hemoglobin HCO3– + H+ Capillary Fig a, p. 1009

28 b. Lungs Slow HCO3– + H+ CO2 + H2O HCO3– + H+ Hemoglobin Fast
In the lungs, the reactions are reversed. Some of the HCO3– in the blood plasma combines with H+ to form CO2 and water. However, most of the HCO3– is transported into erythrocytes, where it combines with H+ released from hemoglobin to form CO2 and water. CO2 is released from hemoglobin. The CO2 diffuses from the erythrocytes and, with the CO2 in the blood plasma, diffuses from the blood into the alveolar air. HCO3– + H+ Hemoglobin Fast CO2 + H2O CO2 Figure 44.13 The reactions occurring during the transfer of CO2 from body tissues to alveolar air. Capillary wall CO2 Alveolar air Alveolar wall CO2 Fig b, p. 1009

29 44.5 Respiration at High Altitudes and in Ocean Depths
High altitudes reduce the PO2 of air entering the lungs Diving mammals are adapted to survive the high partial pressures of gases at extreme depths

30 High Altitudes: PO2 Decreases
When mammals move to high altitudes, the number of red cells and amount of hemoglobin per cell increase These changes are reversed if the animals return to lower altitudes

31 Adaptations to High Altitudes
Humans living at higher altitudes from birth develop more alveoli and capillary networks in the lungs Some mammals and birds adapted to high altitudes have forms of hemoglobin with greater O2 affinity Allows saturation at lower PO2

32 Deep-Diving Marine Mammals
Blood (compared to other mammals) Contains more red blood cells Has higher hemoglobin content Greater blood volume per unit of body weight Muscles contain more myoglobin Allows more O2 to be stored in muscle tissues

33 Adaptations for Deep-Diving
During a dive Heartbeat slows Circulation is reduced to all parts of the body except the brain

34 COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder
Number 4 leading cause of Death in US 24 million adults affected Causes include tobacco use and asthma Asthma- Percent of noninstitutionalized adults who currently have asthma: 7.3% Percent of children who currently have asthma: 9.4%

Download ppt "Gas Exchange Chapter 44."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google