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© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 1 Software Project Management 4th Edition Monitoring and control Chapter 9
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 2 The control cycle
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 3 Responsibilities
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 4 Assessing progress Checkpoints – predetermined times when progress is checked –Event driven: check takes place when a particular event has been achieved –Time driven: date of the check is pre-determined Frequency of reporting The higher the management level then generally the longer the gaps between checkpoints
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 5 Collecting progress details Need to collect data about: Achievements Costs A big problem: how to deal with partial completions 99% completion syndrome Possible solutions: Control of products, not activities Subdivide into lots of sub-activities
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 6 Red/Amber/Green reporting Identify key tasks Break down into sub-tasks Assess subtasks as: Green – ‘on target’ Amber – ‘not on target but recoverable’ Red – ‘not on target and recoverable only with difficulty’ Status of ‘critical’ tasks is particularly important
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 7 Gantt charts
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 8 Slip charts
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 9 Ball charts Code and test module A Code and test module B Code and test module C 10/10/05 21/10/05 23/10/05 14/10/05 17/10/05 27/10/05 31/10/05 17/10/05 27/10/05 7/11/05
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 10 The timeline
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 11 Cost monitoring A project could be late because the staff originally committed, have not been deployed In this case the project will be behind time but under budget A project could be on time but only because additional resources have been added and so by over budget Need to monitor both achievements and costs
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 12 Earned value analysis Planned value (PV) or Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) – original estimate of the effort/cost to complete a task (compare with idea of a ‘price’) Earned value (EV) or Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) – total of PVs for the work completed at this time
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 13 Accounting conventions Conventions –0/100 nothing allocated on start of activity, 100% on finish – used here –50/50 half allocated at start, the other half on completion –Milestone current value depends on the milestones achieved Can use money values, or staff effort as a surrogate
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 14 Earned value – an example Tasks –Specify module5 days –Code module8 days –Test module6 days At the beginning of day 20, PV = 19 days If everything but testing completed EV = 13 days Schedule variance = EV-PV i.e. 13-19 = -3 Schedule performance indicator (SPI) = 13/19 = 0.68
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 15 Earned value analysis – actual cost Actual cost (AC) is also known as Actual cost of work performed (ACWP) In previous example, if –‘Specify module’ actually took 3 days –‘Code module’ actually took 4 days Actual cost = 7 days Cost variance (CV) = EV-AC i.e. 13-7 = 6 days Cost performance indicator = 13/7 = 1.86 Positive CV or CPI < 1.00 means project under budget
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 16 Earned value chart with revised forecasts
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 17 Prioritizing monitoring We might focus more on monitoring certain types of activity e.g. Critical path activities Activities with no free float – if delayed later dependent activities are delayed Activities with less than a specified float High risk activities Activities using critical resources
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 18 Getting back on track: options Renegotiate the deadline – if not possible then Try to shorten critical path e.g. –Work overtime –Re-allocate staff from less pressing work –Buy in more staff Reconsider activity dependencies –Over-lap the activities so that the start of one activity does not have to wait for completion of another –Split activities
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 19 Change control The role of configuration librarian: Identifying items that need to be subject to change control Management of a central repository of the master copies of software and documentation Administering change procedures Maintenance of access records
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 20 Typical change control process 1.One or more users might perceive the need for a change 2.User management decide that the change is valid and worthwhile and pass it to development management 3.A developer is assigned to assess the practicality and cost of making the change 4.Development management report back to user management on the cost of the change; user management decide whether to go ahead
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 21 Change control process contd. 5.One or more developers are authorized to make copies of components to be modified 6.Copies modified. After initial testing, a test version might be released to users for acceptance testing 7.When users are satisfied then operational release authorized – master configuration items updated
Costs are planned, measured, analyzed and controlled in terms of project activities. Expenditure for any activity is incurred evenly over the duration.
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