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Managing the Top 20 Landscape Insects & Mites Without Pesticides David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc” The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH © January, 2004, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved
Integrated Pest Management MONITOR PESTS Insects Diseases Weeds Chemical Controls Cultural ControlsBiological Controls © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Plant Health Care Stress (or Pest) Management Plant Evaluation PlantClient Intervention? © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Classic Biocontrols P Predators P Parasites P Pathogens Ants & Wasps Beetles Spiders Bugs (damsel, bigeyed, stink) Mites Others WaspsFlies Virus Fungi Bacteria Entomopathogenic Nematodes © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Biocontrol or "BioBased"? ! Paenibacillus popillae – grub milky disease ! Bacillus thuringiensis - *-endotoxin ! Saccharopolyspora spinosa - spinosyns (=ConserveJ) © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria spp. "White" Fungus Metarhizium spp. "Green" Fungus Naturalis-T® (none registered in US) © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Entomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae S. riobravis S. scapterisci Heterorhabditis bacteriophora © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Using Biocontrols in Landscapes ! Introduction ! Conservation ! Augmentation © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Conserving Biological Controls ! Learn to recognize biocontrols ! Use least toxic chemicals ! Target chemicals WHERE needed ! Educate customer ! Provide food and habitat ! BE PATIENT!! © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Selecting Least Toxic Insecticides ! Soaps and Oils (kill by contact only) ! Use IGR-type products (very selective) ! Use chloro or thianicotinoids ! Use microbial products ! Use short residual products ! ?? © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Classic Cultural Controls P Physical/mechanical P Plant Resistance/Tolerance Hand crushing Traps Barriers Syringing Site PlantsFertilizer & Water © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Caterpillar Controls Non-Pesticides Biologicals Predators Parasites Pathogens “Bt” & “Spinosad” Cultural Crush! Resistant/tolerant plants? “Soaps or Oils” Avoid cover sprays! © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
JB Adult Controls Non-Pesticide Biologicals Predators (few) Parasites (mainly larval) Pathogens (mainly larval) Cultural Remove first “Scouts!” Resistant/tolerant plants? Site plants in shade or partial sun. Traps (NO!) © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Borer Control Approaches Cultural – Use plants that are not prone to borer attack! Plant health care – plants in good growing conditions can usually repel borer attacks. Avoid Plant Damage – damaged plants are prone to attack. Biological – Usually not effective because they attack after infestation. © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Bug & Aphid Controls Non-Pesticides Biologicals Predators Parasites Pathogens Cultural Crush! Resistant/tolerant plants? Site plants in shade or partial sun. Syringe! “Soaps or Oils” © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Scale Controls Non-Pesticide Biologicals Predators (numerous) Parasites (BINGO!) Pathogens (few) Cultural Prune out heavy infestations. Resistant/tolerant plants? Don’t fertilize heavily! Syringe? “Soaps or Oils” © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Mite Controls Non-Pesticides Biologicals Predators (numerous, all small) Parasites (nope) Pathogens (few) Cultural Avoid introductions! (bedding plants) Resistant/tolerant plants? Site plants in shade or partial sun. Syringe! “Soaps or Oils” Avoid cover sprays! © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Gall Controls Non-Pesticides Biologicals Predators (few) Parasites (some) Pathogens (few) Cultural Resistant/tolerant plants? Just learn to “appreciate” them! Pull off! © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
Are there alternatives to insecticides for lawns? Insect parasitic nematodes are effective, but expensive and inconsistent. New ones are on the way! Milky disease of Japanese beetles does not affect other species of grubs. In Ohio, the disease is a weak pathogen that will eventually occur “naturally.” Very expensive to apply. Endophytes provide long term, consistent control (of surface insects). © D.J. Shetlar, 2004
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