2 Lesson 1 MotionPosition- the location of an object. It answers the question, “Where is the object?”Motion- a change in position over time.Motion has two parts: distance and directionDistance can be measured by using arrows on a grid and a ruler.***Units of measurement for distance: meters(m), kilometers(km), feet(ft), ormiles(mi)Direction is where an arrow is pointing: north, south, east, west (use a compass, protractor,and units of degrees)
3 Lesson 1 continued…Speed- how fast an object’s position changes over time. To calculate speed:Speed=distance ÷ time
4 Lesson 1 continued…Velocity- measurement that combines both the speed and direction of a moving object.Acceleration- change in velocity over time for an objectAcceleration=change in speed ÷ timeMomentum- the more momentum an object has, the easier it is for that object to move other objects.Momentum= mass x velocity
5 Lesson 2 Forces and Motion Force- any push or pull from one object to anotherForces can crush, stretch, or twist objects and deform them. (you can crush an aluminum can with your hands)The harder the substance is, the more force it takes to change its shape.
6 Lesson 2 Continued…Friction- The force that opposes the motion of one object moving past anotherFriction depends on the surfaces of two objects and how hard the objects are pushed together.***smooth surfaces=less friction***rough surfaces=more frictionFriction also increases with the weigh of the objectAir resistance- When an object moves through air, the air hits an object and slows it down.
7 Newton’s First Law of Motion Lesson 2 Continued….Newton’s First Law of MotionAn object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in constant motion tendsto stay in motion, unless acted upon by an outside forceNewton’s First Law of Motion is sometimes called the law of inertiaBalanced forces- when forces act on an object without changing its motion
8 Force= mass x acceleration Lesson 2 continued….Newton’s Second Law of MotionThe unbalanced force of an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration:Force= mass x acceleration
9 Newton’s Third Law of Motion Lesson 2 Continued…Newton’s Third Law of MotionAll forces occur in pairs, and these two forces are equal in strength and opposite in direction. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction!Action Forces- the push of the first object onthe second object.Reaction Forces- the push of the second object backon the first.
10 Lesson 3 Work and EnergyWork- measurement of the energy used to perform a taskWork= force x distanceEnergy- the ability to perform work or tochange an objectFrictionPulling force
11 Lesson 3 continued…Potential Energy- energy that is stored in the position or structure of an objectKinetic Energy- energy of a moving objectLaw of Conservation of Energy- energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only change form.Potential Energy(stored energy)Kinetic Energy(releasing energy)
12 Lesson 4 Simple Machines Simple Machines- a machine that takes one force and changes its direction, distance, or strength.Effort- the force you apply to a machineLoad- the object moved by the outputFulcrum- a lever that rotates around a pivot pointFulcrum
13 Lesson 4 continued… Gears are a type of wheel and axle A winding road is a type of inclined planeA screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a postScissors, knives, and other cutting tools take advantage of the wedge.
14 Lesson 4 continued…Compound Machines- when two or more simple machines are combinedEfficiency – ratio of input energy to output work, usually written as a percentage.A bike is made up of many simple machines, so it is considered a compound machine