2 Where do the differences between men and women come from? THE BIG QUESTIONSWhere do the differences between men and women come from?How have the lives of women and men changed in the past 50 years?How are our sex lives shaped by biology and society?How has sexual behavior changed in the last 50 years?
3 Where do the differences between men and women come from? QUESTION 1Where do the differences between men and women come from?
4 What Do Differences Actually Mean? Do males score higher than females on standardized math tests?Male and female means and distribution on Math SAT testMore people score in the middle distribution than at either extremeMales have higher average, but many members will have higher average who are below average of sex with lower average
5 What shapes gender differences in behavior and preferences? Gender SocializationWhat shapes gender differences in behavior and preferences?Biological differences, including hormones, anatomy, or brain structureSocial construction of gender including parenting and mass mediaDefinitions:Gender: Way in which social forces structure how being male or female affect what is expected of you, what opportunities you have, and the results for individual men and women.Social construction of gender: Entire system of social processes that create and sustain gender differences and gender inequality.Patriarchy: Gender system in which men have more power than wormen in politics, the economy, and the family.
6 Sex versus GenderSexBiological grouping based on anatomy, chromosomes, and levels of hormonesGenderResult of how society shapes differences and inequalities between men and womenTransgendered IndividualsChallenge assumptions about how sex and gender and how these go togetherHow do we distinguish the concepts of sex and gender?
7 Gender Differences by Setting and Time Rationale for Social Construction of GenderGender differences vary between social settingsGender arrangements have changed over timeLightdale and colleagues concluded that gender-stereotypical behavior is more likely when people believe they are being watchedHow do social expectations affect the interactions between men and women when they know they are being watched by others?
8 Do you know? Check your text! What does the fact that gender differences vary across situations and over time tell us about the concept of gender?Gender-stereotypical behavior is more likely to happen when people believe that they are being watched.Some of how women and men act results from trying to live up to what they think others expect from someone of their sex.Social pressure, even with no rewards or punishment, has an effect.Do you know? Check your text!
9 The Impact of Stereotypes Stereotypes: Beliefs about group that are often untrue or exaggerated as a description of the groupResearch findings reveal that what people hear from others about whether their sex is better at something affects their confidence and even their actual performanceSocial context determine how “macho” men actCorrell: Women’s assessment of their math skills were influenced by disclosures of male superiority on testsSpencer and colleagues: Differences in math test performance influenced by disclosure of male higher performance or male equal performance on tests.These studies do not prove that biological influence have no influence on gender differences. Gender difference fluctuations indicate influence of social situations.
10 How have the lives of women and men changed in the last 50 years? QUESTION 2How have the lives of women and men changed in the last 50 years?
11 Rising Women’s Employment and Education Of all the changes in the lives of women over the last several decades, the biggest is the increase of women in the paid workforceIncreased wagesHigher share of jobs in service workFeminist movement and laws against sex discriminationSteady increase in women’s educational levelWhat are some of the reasons that women’s employment increased dramatically between 1960 and 1990?Increased wages offered incentive to work for payEconomy changed to include higher share of jobs in service workFeminist movement and the laws against sex discrimination were influentialWomen steadily increased their share of degrees over timeMore women than men now receive degreesFinancial support for college has changed
12 Occupational sex segregation measures Change in Women’s JobsOccupational sex segregation measuresSex segregation declined substantially in 1970s and 1980Declined more slowly since thenJobs still sex segregated partly due to socialization and hiring discriminationIn the last 40 years, occupational sex segregation has declined significantlyIn the last 40 years, occupational sex segregation has declined significantlyOne example of this is that more women have entered into engineering, still a largely male-dominated field.
13 Why do women earn less than men? What does your textbook say? Women earned about 60 to 65 percent of what men earned from the 1950s to the 1980s. After 1980, this began to equalize so that by about 2000, women earned 76 percent of what men did. Since 2000 there hasn’t been much more progress toward equality.
14 What Do You Think?Why haven't the changes in men's roles been as dramatic as the changes in women's roles?Let’s find out!
15 The Impact on MenWomen have entered traditionally male employment more than men have taken on traditionally female activitiesGreater stigma for men to engage in female-identified activitiesMen’s housework increased slightlyEmployed fathers spend more time caring for their children than they did 50 years ago, but so do employed mothers.Women have entered traditionally male employment more than men have taken on traditionally female activitiesGreater stigma for men to engage in female-identified activitiesAttitudes towards female employment improvedMen’s housework increased slightlyEmployed fathers spend more time caring for their children than they did 50 years ago, but so do employed mothers.Women’s hours of paid work have increased much more than men’s hours in household work.Norms of masculinity seem relatively unchanged in insisting that married men are supposed to have a job—so much so that when men aren’t employed, couples more often divorce
16 How are our sex lives shaped by biology and society? QUESTION 3How are our sex lives shaped by biology and society?
17 Do American women take any drastic measures to alter their bodies? In the “Long Neck” tribe in Northern Thailand, women are seen as more beautiful if they have long necks, and some take drastic measures to achieve this beautyDo American women take any drastic measures to alter their bodies?If so, what are these?What Drastic Measures Do American Women Take to Alter Their Bodies?
18 Terms and labels Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation Heterosexual HomosexualBisexualDefinitions:Sexual orientation: Refers to whether individuals are attracted to members of the other sex, the same sex, or bothDiamondShowed that behavior (which sex one has sex with), attraction (which sex one is attracted to), and identity (whether one refers to oneself as lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual) are not always consistent
19 Does Biology Influence Sexual Orientation? What the research tells usHigher percentage of identical twins of gay men were also gay, compared to lower percentage of fraternal twins of gay brothers and even lower percentage of adoptive brothers of gay menSimilar pattern found for womenWhat conclusion can you develop from these findings?
20 Our culture supports double standard of sexuality Sexual BehaviorEvolutionary theoriesSpecific sex-genes help men and women to produce offspringFor women: Number of surviving children will not be enhanced by frequent sex with multiple partnersFor men: Genes that encourage frequent, casual sex would increase men’s number of offspring-evolution led to more preference for causal sex among menOur culture supports double standard of sexualityNightclubs and college parties often feature women showing more skin than men. Why is this?
21 Sexual MinoritiesSexual minorityAnyone who is not heterosexual, or who is transgenderedHeteronormativitySituation where culture and institutions send message that everyone who is normal is heterosexualHeterosexism or homophobiaBias directed at person because of sexual orientation
22 What do you think is the future of same-sex marriage in America? Let’s Talk About It!Same sex marriageWhat do you think is the future of same-sex marriage in America?On what do you base your opinion?Gay rights movement Queer Nation: group highlighted the concerns of nonheterosexual persons of color, lesbians, bisexuals, transgendered persons, and those who didn’t like pigeonholing people into any of these categories and preferred the umbrella term queer.Strong backlash: Religious institutions, local and state government groups opposed gay marriage; DOMA at federal level
23 How has sexual behavior changed in the last 50 years? QUESTION 4How has sexual behavior changed in the last 50 years?
24 Overview Increase in proportion of Americans have sex before marriage Premarital SexOverviewIncrease in proportion of Americans have sex before marriageAmerican parents against teen children having sexCohabitationIncreasing numbers of young couples in relationship living together as unmarried coupleHow have relationships in which premarital sex occurs changed in recent decades in the U .S.?
25 Hooking UpIn recent decades sexual activity in causal liaisons with no expectation that a relationship with ensueDo you think that hookups often lead to relationships?
26 Gender ScriptsHow much change has occurred in the sexual and romantic behavior that are scripted by gender?Sex before marriage has become more acceptableLittle change in gender differences in what is expected in the romantic and sexual realmIn hookups, women feel obligation to try to give pleasure; men more selfish
27 Births Outside of Marriage Birth outside of marriage more common with increase in all education, income, and racial groupsHighest rates occur among most disadvantaged African AmericansReduction of stigma of pregnancy outside of marriage related to acceptance of sex before marriage
28 Generational Differences Younger generation more likely to have sex before marriage, to have cohabited before marriage, and to have more sexual partnersOral sex more accepted and appealing to younger generationMarried or cohabiting people reported more frequent sex in the last year