I. The Rise of Universities! What kinds of people make up Universities?
A.The First Universities 1.The first European university appeared in Bologna, Italy. An amazing teacher named Oinerias attracted student from all over Europe! 2. Most were men, from wealthy families – eager to learn about the law. 3.First university in Northern Erupt was the University of Paris. Many left Paris and eventually started another university called Oxford, in England. Kings, Popes and princes thought it was honorable to begin Universities!
B. University Curricula! 1.Students began their studies at a medieval university with the regional liberal arts curriculum…in other words, grammar, logic, math, geometry, music and astronomy. Compared to today, how many more types of classes are offered at universities? 2. Teaching was done by lecture only – “lecture” is derived from Latin meaning “to read”. Books were expensive so teachers would read to the students.
3. NO exams were given after a series of lectures – HOWEVER, when you applied for your degree, you were given an examination by a committee of teachers – exam was taken usually after a 4 or t6 hour period of study. 4. After completing the liberal arts curriculum, a student could then go on and study medicine or theology – Theology is the study of religion and God – most HIGLHLY regarded subject - could take 10 years or more!!
5. Those who had earned doctor’s degrees were officially able to teach – although many did other things – lawyers, medical doctors. Etc. II. The Development of Scholasticism!! 1.Scholasticism tried trod reconcile FAITH and REASON together – to show what was accepted ion faith could be combined with science as well. 2.Chief task of scholasticism was to combine Christian teachings with Greek Philosophy.
NOW – remember!! Most Europeans didn’t really know much about Greek Philosophers, such as Aristotle, - his works, however would UPSET many theologians - because many contradicted the Bible. 3. Saint Thomas Aquinas made the most famous attempt to being together Aristotle and Christian teachings. Posted questions such as “Does God Exist?” – then he would cite sources that offered opposing positions on the answer.
III. Vernacular Literature 1.Latin was the universal language – however, new literature was being written in the Vernacular – language of everyday speech. IV. Architecture! 1. The 11 th and 12 th centuries witnessed an explosion of building in medieval Europe – especially with churches. The Cathedrals of this time were built in the Romanesque style – this style was build in the basilica shape used in the construction of churches during the Roman Empire.
2. Basicilias were rectangular building with flat wooden roofs – ended up replacing the wooden roof with a long, round stone arched structure vault – they were considered very beautiful. 3. Now, because stone is HEAVY, Romanesque churches required massive pillars to hold them up this left little space for windows – so these churches were pretty dark inside.
4. A new style called Gothic, appeared in the 12 th century – The Gothic Cathedrals remains one of the greatest artistic triumphs of the Middle Ages. – 2 basic innovations made it possible: a. replacement of the round barrel on top with pointed arches. (enabled the churches to be built higher) b. other was a flying buttress – a heavy, arched support of stone built on the outside of the walls – made it possible to distribute with outward.
5. Gothic churches had thin walls and since they weren't supporting a ton of weight, they could have magnificent stained glass windows!! The colored glass depicted religious scenes and would create a virtual lightshow through any period of the day depending on where the sun was!