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Grade 1: Phonics and Word Study

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1 Grade 1: Phonics and Word Study
Comments or conclusions do not necessarily represent the positions of the U.S. Department of Education, and endorsement by the Federal Government should not be assumed. These materials are copyrighted © by and are the property of the Texas Education Agency and the University of Texas System and may not be modified, reproduced, or distributed without their written permission, except by educators under the following conditions: any portion modified (a derivative work), reproduced, or distributed will be used exclusively for non-profit educational purposes; any use will credit the source by including the following: “This publication is based on First Grade Teacher Reading Academy, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.”; and no monetary charge is made for the derivative or reproduced materials, any document containing them, or any activity at which they are distributed; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of modification, reproduction, and distribution may be charged. The material in this Institute has been modified from the Florida version of the original reading academies that were developed by the Texas Education Agency and the Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. The copyright to these materials is held by the Texas Education Agency. The copyrights of individual articles included within the academies is held by the original publishers of the articles, and they are included here with permission.

2 Survey of Knowledge Decoding Decodable texts Graphophonemic knowledge
Handouts 1 & 2 Activity Decoding Decodable texts Graphophonemic knowledge Instructional level Irregular words Morphemes Orthography Phonics Rime Sight words Sounding out Syllable Materials: Handout 1: “Survey of Knowledge” Handout 2: “Answer Key – Survey of Knowledge” Activity: Survey of Knowledge Objective: Become familiar with key terms related to phonics and word-study instruction.

3 Components of Effective Reading Instruction

4 What We Know From Research
Especially when introduced in kindergarten and first grade, explicit, systematic phonics instruction is significantly more effective than alternative programs that provide unsystematic or no phonics instruction Systematic phonics instruction improves kindergarten and first grade students’ word recognition and spelling skills

5 North Carolina Standard Course of Study
Activity Goal 1: The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies and skills to read and write. 1.02 Demonstrate decoding and word recognition strategies and skills: Use phonics knowledge of sound-letter relationships to decode regular one-syllable words when reading words and text. 1.04 Self-monitor decoding by using one or two decoding strategies (e.g., beginning letters, rimes, length of word, ending letters.) Materials: North Carolina Standard Course of Study Activity: North Carolina Standard Course of Study Objective: Become familiar with state curriculum standards that address phonics and word study.

6 Letter Recognition Recognizing, naming, and writing the letters of the alphabet Identifying and distinguishing both uppercase and lowercase letters

7 Letter Recognition Activities
Alphabet Mats and Alphabet Arcs Help first graders learn: letter names the sequence of letters in the alphabet Materials: Laminated Alphabet Mats and Arcs Alphabet Mat and Arc Masters

Alphabet Activities ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ M N Materials: Laminated Alphabet Mats and Arcs Plastic uppercase letters Handout 3: “Model Lesson for the Alphabet Arc” Activity: Alphabet Mat and Arc Objective: Become familiar with the Alphabet Mat and Arc A Z Handout 3

9 Phonics and Word Study Students should come to understand:
Sounds can be represented by a single letter or combination of letters Some letters can represent more than one sound Different word-study strategies can be used to decode and read unknown words Generalizations (or rules) may help determine the correct pronunciations of words but may not apply to every word

10 Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonics
VIDEO 4:24 Activity Letter-sound knowledge involves learning the common sounds of letters, letter combinations, and spelling patterns Explicit and systematic phonics instruction teaches students a carefully selected set of letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns that are organized into a logical sequence Materials: Video (TIME – 4:24) Activity: “Letter Knowledge and Letter-Sound Correspondences” Video Objective: Identify ways to help students learn the letters of the alphabet and their sounds.

11 Grouping for Instruction
Teach phonics and word study in small groups, one-on-one, or with the whole class, depending on students’ abilities and needs

12 Explicit and Systematic Instruction
Teach more-frequently used letters and sounds before teaching those less frequently used Begin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words students can decode and understand Introduce only a few letter-sound correspondences at a time Present each individual letter and its most common sound I do it. We do it. You do it. Handouts 4 & 5 Materials: Handout 4: “One Example of a Sequence for Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondences” Handout 5: “Words Using First 11 Letter-Sound Correspondences”

13 Letter Combinations Common letter combinations include:
Handout 6 Common letter combinations include: Consonant blends Consonant digraphs Vowel combinations (vowel pairs, vowel digraphs) Materials: Handout 6: “Letter Combinations”

14 Word Study Strategies Identifying and blending together the letter sounds in words Recognizing high frequency and irregular words Using common spelling patterns Using common syllable patterns Using structural analysis Using knowledge of context and syntax to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning VIDEO 9:22 Activity Materials: Video (TIME – 9:22)

15 Decoding Handout 7 Model how to blend the individual sounds from left to right without stopping between them Follow “sounding out” with a fast pronunciation of the word Help students to move from orally “sounding out” words to silently “sounding out” words as they read Materials: Handout 7: “Blending Activities” Plastic lowercase letters Activity: Blending Objective: Become familiar with examples of blending activities to help students read words.

16 Irregular Words Handout 8 Contain some letters that do not represent their most commonly used sounds Tend to be high frequency words that students encounter often in their reading and writing Can be partially decoded Materials: Handout 8: “Teaching Irregular Words”

17 Making Analogies Handout 9 Helps students remember words with sounds or spelling patterns that they already know and apply this knowledge to read and spell unknown words Includes explicit teacher modeling Materials: Handout 9: “Common Spelling Patterns”

18 Open Sort Activity Place the blank heading cards across the table
Shuffle the deck of word cards Sort the words by commonalities Create your own category for each set of words Label the heading cards after you’ve determined the categories Materials: Word sort cards Blank index cards Activity: Open Sort Objective: Become familiar with the practice of sorting words using an open sort.

19 Making Analogies: Common Syllable Patterns
Handouts 10 & 11 Activity Closed syllable (CVC) ends in at least one consonant; the vowel is short Open syllable (CV) ends in one vowel; the vowel is long Vowel-Consonant-e (VCe or CVCe) ends in one vowel, one consonant, and a final e; final e is silent; the vowel is long Vowel + r syllable has an r after the vowel; the vowel makes an unexpected sound Vowel pair syllable has two adjacent vowels; each vowel pair syllable must be learned individually Final stable syllable has a final consonant-l-e combination or a nonphonetic but reliable unit such as –tion /shun/; accent usually falls on the preceding syllable Materials: Handout 10: “Common Syllable Patterns” Word sort cards (used in Open Sort activity) Laminated answer keys Handout 11: “Two-Syllable Word Puzzles” Pocket Chart Closed sort heading cards Activity: Closed Sort Objective: Become familiar with the practice of sorting words using a closed sort. Demonstration Activity: Two-Syllable Word Puzzles Objective: Become familiar with using an activity that helps reinforce students’ knowledge of syllable patterns.

20 Structural Analysis Helps students analyze words, or break them into parts they already know, to help them read and spell unfamiliar words Compound words Base (or root) words Prefixes Suffixes Inflectional endings

21 Using Context and Syntax
Knowledge of context and syntax can support word identification and confirm word meanings “Does that sound right here?” “Does that make sense?”

22 Scaffolding Instruction
Adjust instruction to meet the specific needs of students Teacher Materials: Handout 12: “Scaffolding Instruction” Activity: Scaffolding Instruction Objective: Determine how often different types of scaffolding are usually provided during reading instruction. Amount of Support Independent Introduction Mastery Concepts

23 Scaffolded Practice Provide students with immediate feedback during practice Have students practice new sounds with previously taught letter-sound correspondences Provide support as students read text Help students “sound out” and blend letter sounds to read words Provide opportunities for independent practice Materials: Chart paper or dry-erase board Marker Demonstration Activity: Scaffolded Practice Objective: Become familiar with practice opportunities to reinforce letter-sound knowledge.

24 Making Words Lessons These lessons:
provide opportunities for students to make, sort, and read words include teacher modeling and scaffolding

25 Making and Sorting Words
Handouts 14 & 15 VIDEO 8:12 Activity 1 Activity 2 Create a graphic organizer that illustrates the steps on the handout “Making and Sorting Words Lessons” Display the organizer on the wall With a partner, use the letter cards at your table to practice the lesson on the handout “Reviewing Letter Sounds to Blend Sounds and Read Words” Materials: Handout 14: “Making Words Lessons” Video (TIME – 8:12) Handout 15: “Reviewing Letter Sounds to Blend Sounds and Read Words” Letter cards: a, m, t, r, f Chart paper Markers Tape Individual pocket charts Activity: Making and Sorting Words Graphic Organizer Objective: Become familiar with the step-by-step procedures of Making and Sorting Words lessons. Activity: Making and Sorting Words Practice Objective: Implement Making and Sorting Words Procedures in a small-group lesson for struggling readers.

26 Sight Words Sight words are words that are recognized immediately
Handout 16 Sight words are words that are recognized immediately The ultimate goal is for all words, regular and irregular, to be read automatically with little effort Materials: Handout 16: “Ways to Support the Development of Sight Words”

27 Teaching With Word Walls
Handout 17 VIDEO 6:03 Group words in different categories to help students learn to read and spell words independently Select words from a variety of sources Limit the number of words that are added Categorize words in a variety of ways Provide many opportunities for word-wall practice Materials: Handout 17: “Using Word Walls” Video (TIME – 6:03) Activity: “Word Walls” Video Objective: Identify ways to use word walls to enhance first graders’ reading and writing.

28 Consider Diversity: Limited English Proficient Students
Help students use their understanding of the alphabetic principle to decode words Teach students how to transfer what they know in their native language to English Take particular care to teach letter combinations and sounds that do not occur in the students’ native languages

29 Monitoring Students’ Progress
Regularly monitor students’ phonics and word-study knowledge Listen to students read aloud instructional-level texts Materials: Handout 18: “Letter Names Progress Check” Handout 19: “Letter Sounds Progress Check” Handout 20: “Blending Sounds to Read Words Progress Check” Handout 21: “Sample Letter-Sound Knowledge Checklist” Handout 22: “Short Vowel Words”

30 Taking a Closer Look Handouts 23 & 24 Activity Review the elements of effective phonics and word-study instruction on the handout “Elements of Effective Instruction: Phonics and Word Study” Find a lesson that focuses on phonics or word study Complete the handout “Taking a Closer Look” Discuss the lesson and its elements Materials: Handout 23: “Elements of Effective Instruction: Phonics and Word Study” Handout 24: “Taking a Closer Look” Teacher’s Edition of reading program Activity: Reading Programs Objective: Examine reading programs to determine how phonics and word-study instruction are addressed.

31 Remember . . . Explicit and systematic phonics and word-study instruction is an important component of a beginning reading program. “The goal [of systematic phonics instruction] is to enable learners to acquire sufficient knowledge and use of the alphabetic code so that they can make normal progress in learning to read and comprehend written language.” -National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 2.99 Materials: Handout 25: “Understanding Beginning Reading: A Journey through Teaching and Research”

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