2 Survey of Knowledge Decoding Decodable texts Graphophonemic knowledge Handouts 1 & 2ActivityDecodingDecodable textsGraphophonemic knowledgeInstructional levelIrregular wordsMorphemesOrthographyPhonicsRimeSight wordsSounding outSyllableMaterials:Handout 1: “Survey of Knowledge”Handout 2: “Answer Key – Survey of Knowledge”Activity: Survey of KnowledgeObjective: Become familiar with key terms related to phonics and word-study instruction.
4 What We Know From Research Especially when introduced in kindergarten and first grade, explicit, systematic phonics instruction is significantly more effective than alternative programs that provide unsystematic or no phonics instructionSystematic phonics instruction improves kindergarten and first grade students’ word recognition and spelling skills
5 North Carolina Standard Course of Study ActivityGoal 1:The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies and skills to read and write.1.02 Demonstrate decoding and word recognition strategies and skills:Use phonics knowledge of sound-letter relationships to decode regular one-syllable words when reading words and text.1.04 Self-monitor decoding by using one or two decoding strategies (e.g., beginning letters, rimes, length of word, ending letters.)Materials:North Carolina Standard Course of StudyActivity: North Carolina Standard Course of StudyObjective: Become familiar with state curriculum standards that address phonics and word study.
6 Letter RecognitionRecognizing, naming, and writing the letters of the alphabetIdentifying and distinguishing both uppercase and lowercase letters
7 Letter Recognition Activities Alphabet MatsandAlphabet ArcsHelp first graders learn:letter namesthe sequence of letters in the alphabetMaterials:Laminated Alphabet Mats and ArcsAlphabet Mat and Arc Masters
8 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Alphabet ActivitiesABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZM NMaterials:Laminated Alphabet Mats and ArcsPlastic uppercase lettersHandout 3: “Model Lesson for the Alphabet Arc”Activity: Alphabet Mat and ArcObjective: Become familiar with the Alphabet Mat and ArcAZHandout 3
9 Phonics and Word Study Students should come to understand: Sounds can be represented by a single letter or combination of lettersSome letters can represent more than one soundDifferent word-study strategies can be used to decode and read unknown wordsGeneralizations (or rules) may help determine the correct pronunciations of words but may not apply to every word
10 Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonics VIDEO4:24ActivityLetter-sound knowledge involves learning the common sounds of letters, letter combinations, and spelling patternsExplicit and systematic phonics instruction teaches students a carefully selected set of letter-sound correspondences and spelling patterns that are organized into a logical sequenceMaterials:Video (TIME – 4:24)Activity: “Letter Knowledge and Letter-Sound Correspondences” VideoObjective: Identify ways to help students learn the letters of the alphabet and their sounds.
11 Grouping for Instruction Teach phonics and word study in small groups, one-on-one, or with the whole class, depending on students’ abilities and needs
12 Explicit and Systematic Instruction Teach more-frequently used letters and sounds before teaching those less frequently usedBegin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words students can decode and understandIntroduce only a few letter-sound correspondences at a timePresent each individual letter and its most common soundI do it. We do it. You do it.Handouts 4 & 5Materials:Handout 4: “One Example of a Sequence for Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondences”Handout 5: “Words Using First 11 Letter-Sound Correspondences”
13 Letter Combinations Common letter combinations include: Handout 6Common letter combinations include:Consonant blendsConsonant digraphsVowel combinations (vowel pairs, vowel digraphs)Materials:Handout 6: “Letter Combinations”
14 Word Study StrategiesIdentifying and blending together the letter sounds in wordsRecognizing high frequency and irregular wordsUsing common spelling patternsUsing common syllable patternsUsing structural analysisUsing knowledge of context and syntax to support pronunciation and confirm word meaningVIDEO9:22ActivityMaterials:Video (TIME – 9:22)
15 DecodingHandout 7Model how to blend the individual sounds from left to right without stopping between themFollow “sounding out” with a fast pronunciation of the wordHelp students to move from orally “sounding out” words to silently “sounding out” words as they readMaterials:Handout 7: “Blending Activities”Plastic lowercase lettersActivity: BlendingObjective: Become familiar with examples of blending activities to help students read words.
16 Irregular WordsHandout 8Contain some letters that do not represent their most commonly used soundsTend to be high frequency words that students encounter often in their reading and writingCan be partially decodedMaterials:Handout 8: “Teaching Irregular Words”
17 Making AnalogiesHandout 9Helps students remember words with sounds or spelling patterns that they already know and apply this knowledge to read and spell unknown wordsIncludes explicit teacher modelingMaterials:Handout 9: “Common Spelling Patterns”
18 Open Sort Activity Place the blank heading cards across the table Shuffle the deck of word cardsSort the words by commonalitiesCreate your own category for each set of wordsLabel the heading cards after you’ve determined the categoriesMaterials:Word sort cardsBlank index cardsActivity: Open SortObjective: Become familiar with the practice of sorting words using an open sort.
19 Making Analogies: Common Syllable Patterns Handouts 10 & 11ActivityClosed syllable (CVC)ends in at least one consonant; the vowel is shortOpen syllable (CV)ends in one vowel; the vowel is longVowel-Consonant-e (VCe or CVCe)ends in one vowel, one consonant, and a final e; final e is silent; the vowel is longVowel + r syllablehas an r after the vowel; the vowel makes an unexpected soundVowel pair syllablehas two adjacent vowels; each vowel pair syllable must be learned individuallyFinal stable syllablehas a final consonant-l-e combination or a nonphonetic but reliable unit such as –tion /shun/; accent usually falls on the preceding syllableMaterials:Handout 10: “Common Syllable Patterns”Word sort cards (used in Open Sort activity)Laminated answer keysHandout 11: “Two-Syllable Word Puzzles”Pocket ChartClosed sort heading cardsActivity: Closed SortObjective: Become familiar with the practice of sorting words using a closed sort.Demonstration Activity: Two-Syllable Word PuzzlesObjective: Become familiar with using an activity that helps reinforce students’ knowledge of syllable patterns.
20 Structural AnalysisHelps students analyze words, or break them into parts they already know, to help them read and spell unfamiliar wordsCompound wordsBase (or root) wordsPrefixesSuffixesInflectional endings
21 Using Context and Syntax Knowledge of context and syntax can support word identification and confirm word meanings“Does that sound right here?”“Does that make sense?”
22 Scaffolding Instruction Adjust instruction to meet the specific needs of studentsTeacherMaterials:Handout 12: “Scaffolding Instruction”Activity: Scaffolding InstructionObjective: Determine how often different types of scaffolding are usually provided during reading instruction.Amount of SupportIndependentIntroductionMasteryConcepts
23 Scaffolded PracticeProvide students with immediate feedback during practiceHave students practice new sounds with previously taught letter-sound correspondencesProvide support as students read textHelp students “sound out” and blend letter sounds to read wordsProvide opportunities for independent practiceMaterials:Chart paper or dry-erase boardMarkerDemonstration Activity: Scaffolded PracticeObjective: Become familiar with practice opportunities to reinforce letter-sound knowledge.
24 Making Words Lessons These lessons: provide opportunities for students to make, sort, and read wordsinclude teacher modeling and scaffolding
25 Making and Sorting Words Handouts 14 & 15VIDEO8:12Activity 1Activity 2Create a graphic organizer that illustrates the steps on the handout “Making and Sorting Words Lessons”Display the organizer on the wallWith a partner, use the letter cards at your table to practice the lesson on the handout “Reviewing Letter Sounds to Blend Sounds and Read Words”Materials:Handout 14: “Making Words Lessons”Video (TIME – 8:12)Handout 15: “Reviewing Letter Sounds to Blend Sounds and Read Words”Letter cards: a, m, t, r, fChart paperMarkersTapeIndividual pocket chartsActivity: Making and Sorting Words Graphic OrganizerObjective: Become familiar with the step-by-step procedures of Making and Sorting Words lessons.Activity: Making and Sorting Words PracticeObjective: Implement Making and Sorting Words Procedures in a small-group lesson for struggling readers.
26 Sight Words Sight words are words that are recognized immediately Handout 16Sight words are words that are recognized immediatelyThe ultimate goal is for all words, regular and irregular, to be read automatically with little effortMaterials:Handout 16: “Ways to Support the Development of Sight Words”
27 Teaching With Word Walls Handout 17VIDEO6:03Group words in different categories to help students learn to read and spell words independentlySelect words from a variety of sourcesLimit the number of words that are addedCategorize words in a variety of waysProvide many opportunities for word-wall practiceMaterials:Handout 17: “Using Word Walls”Video (TIME – 6:03)Activity: “Word Walls” VideoObjective: Identify ways to use word walls to enhance first graders’ reading and writing.
28 Consider Diversity: Limited English Proficient Students Help students use their understanding of the alphabetic principle to decode wordsTeach students how to transfer what they know in their native language to EnglishTake particular care to teach letter combinations and sounds that do not occur in the students’ native languages
29 Monitoring Students’ Progress Regularly monitor students’ phonics and word-study knowledgeListen to students read aloud instructional-level textsMaterials:Handout 18: “Letter Names Progress Check”Handout 19: “Letter Sounds Progress Check”Handout 20: “Blending Sounds to Read Words Progress Check”Handout 21: “Sample Letter-Sound Knowledge Checklist”Handout 22: “Short Vowel Words”
30 Taking a Closer LookHandouts23 & 24ActivityReview the elements of effective phonics and word-study instruction on the handout “Elements of Effective Instruction: Phonics and Word Study”Find a lesson that focuses on phonics or word studyComplete the handout “Taking a Closer Look”Discuss the lesson and its elementsMaterials:Handout 23: “Elements of Effective Instruction: Phonics and Word Study”Handout 24: “Taking a Closer Look”Teacher’s Edition of reading programActivity: Reading ProgramsObjective: Examine reading programs to determine how phonics and word-study instruction are addressed.
31 Remember . . .Explicit and systematic phonics and word-study instruction is an important component of a beginning reading program.“The goal [of systematic phonics instruction] is to enable learners to acquire sufficient knowledge and use of the alphabetic code so that they can make normal progress in learning to read and comprehend written language.”-National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 2.99Materials:Handout 25: “Understanding Beginning Reading: A Journey through Teaching and Research”