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Relative Pronouns When referring to people, use who, whom or whose. Use who to refer to people that are subjects, whom to refer to people that are objects.

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Presentation on theme: "Relative Pronouns When referring to people, use who, whom or whose. Use who to refer to people that are subjects, whom to refer to people that are objects."— Presentation transcript:

1 Relative Pronouns When referring to people, use who, whom or whose. Use who to refer to people that are subjects, whom to refer to people that are objects and whose to refer to people who are possessing something.When referring to things, use which (preceded by a comma) in clauses that are not important to the main meaning of the sentence. Never use which to refer to people because this implies that the person is an object rather than a human being. When referring to things, use that (not preceded by a comma) to refer to things in clauses that are important to the main meaning of the sentence. The Ballad Skills and Principles Day 1 Relative clauses Relative clauses give information to define or identify the noun or pronoun to which the clause refers.

2 Coordinating Conjunctions A coordinating conjunction is a word which joins together two independent clauses (has both a subject and predicate) which are both equally important. A comma comes before the conjunction. The most common coordinating conjunctions are the following: and--joins two similar ideas but--joins two contrasting ideas or--joins two alternative ideas so--shows that the second idea is the result of the firstnor nor--joins two negative alternatives for--meaning because yet--meaning but

3 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives Comparative Form and Superlative Form Use -er or -est to form comparative and superlative adjectives that are one- syllable or are two-syllable adjectives ending in -y or -er. Use more or most to form comparative and suprelative adjectives that are adjectives of three or more syllables and two-syllable adjectives not ending in -y/- er. Do not double up (use both the -er/-est form with more or most for the same adjective.)

4 Demonstrative Adjectives with Here and There Demonstrative adjectives are adjectives that indicate specific nouns (that, this, these, those). Do not put the word there after a demonstrative adjective in formal writing. Use of Hyphens with Compound Modifiers Use a hyphen to join two or more words serving as a single adjective before a noun: a one-way street However, when compound modifiers come after a noun, they are not hyphenated: The street was one way. The combination of an adjective and the adverb modifying it does not require a hyphen: a sadly mistaken child Day 2

5 Run-on Sentence: Comma Splice Run-on sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any form of punctuation at all or by an incorrect form such as a comma by itself. Comma splices are a type of run-on sentence that happens when there are two independent clauses separated only by a comma. The error can be corrected by adding a conjunction after the comma, a period, a semicolon, or a colon to separate the two sentences. Run-on Sentence: Corrected with Separate Sentences If a run-on sentence has clauses that cannot be subordinated or that are not highly related, split the run-on into separate sentences.

6 Active Voice versus Passive Voice Active voice has the subject doing something to the object. Passive voice has something being done to the subject by an unknown agent or by something in the prepositional phrase by _______________. Use active voice as much as possible. Only use passive when you have a specific reason. Day 3 Titles of Poems Unless a poem is an epic or of book length for some other reason, put its title in quotation marks. Myron loves Browsing's poem "My Last Duchess."

7 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives Comparative Form and Superlative Form (-er/-est) one-syllable adjectives two-syllable adjectives ending in -y or -er Comparative Form and Superlative Form (more/most) adjectives of three or more syllables (and two-syllable adjectives not ending in -y/-er) Do not double up (use both the -er/-est form with more or most)

8 Commonly Confused Words: There versus Their versus They're The word there indicates a place. There is my favorite broken spatula. The word their indicates that they own whatever the pronoun is modifying. Their spatula is made of gold and rubber. The word they're is the contraction for they are. They're not happy with the spatula's performance. Irregular Past Participle: Sung Some past participles are irregular. Sung is an irregular past participle. Tina has sang in front of the entire school. Incorrect Tina has sung in front of the entire school. Correct Day 4

9 Appositive An appositive is a word or phrase following a noun that gives the noun another name. Commas go around appositives that do not add necessary information to the sentence. Dr. Benway, my personal physician, was arrested for performing illegal operations on swamp creatures. Commonly Misspelled Word: Prevalence Prevalence is spelled with an a in the second syllable and an e in the third.

10 End Punctuation of Sentences: Question Mark Sentences must have some form of end punctuation--a period, a question mark or an exclamation point. When the sentence asks a question, use a question mark. Where did you bury the body, Nancy? Day 5 Coordinating Conjunctions A coordinating conjunction is a word which joins together two independent clauses (has both a subject and predicate) that are equally important. A comma comes before the conjunction. The most common coordinating conjunctions are the following: and--joins two similar ideas but--joins two contrasting ideas or--joins two alternative ideas so--shows that the second idea is the result of the firstnor nor--joins two negative alternatives for--meaning because yet--meaning but

11 Subject and Verb Agreement The verb of a sentence should argree in number with the subject. The dog eat out of that bowl so I wouldn't use it for cereal. Incorrect The dog eats out of that bowl so I wouldn't use it for cereal. Correct Do not let words that come between the subject and the verb influence the number of the verb. The dog, not the cats, eat my shoes. Incorrect The dog, not the cats, eats my shoes. Correct


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