2 Previously…. Morphology Morpheme Types of Morphemes Words Aspects of MorphemeItem and Arrangement Morphology
3 Today’s Lecture Syntax Levels of Language Phonology Phonetics MorphologySyntaxSemanticsPragmatics
4 From Morphology to Syntax Morphology: study of internal composition of wordsWords are arranged and combined at different levelsPhrases, clauses, sentencesStudy of sentences: syntax
5 From Morphology to Syntax Lady, shoes--- nounRed--- adjective MorphologyBuying --- verb (content/lexical word)The lady was buying red shoes. Syntax(sentence)
6 Syntax‘Syntax is the way words and clauses are arranged to form sentences’Etymology:Syn – taxLatin GreekTogether to put in order‘Putting things together in an orderly manner’ that is syntax (Prasad, 73)
7 SyntaxDefinitions:Syntax means sentence construction: how words group together to make phrases and sentences (Tallerman, 1)The Part of grammar that represents a speaker’s knowledge of sentences and their structures is called syntax (Fromkin, 159)Syntax is the study of the structure of sentences.
8 SyntaxThe syntax of English –the third level of grammar and the third level of analysis –deals with the more complex combinations of linguistic forms.Identification of a word class is not, then, a matter of “What do these words mean?” but “How do they fit into a pattern?” “What forms will they take?” and “How do they behave in combination with other forms?” (1999, Herndon)
9 Syntax Syntax not Grammar: Syntax is different from grammar Grammar includes all organizing principles of a language (sound system, form of words, words arrangement to make sentences etc)Grammar is a whole, syntax is a part
10 Syntax: Why Syntax is Important??? We speak in sentences not in words. To understand the structure of a language it is necessary to study the structure of sentences.If we learn to analyze the structure of sentences, we will also learn to analyze their meaning.The study of syntax is the study of the function of words, which is necessary to understand the structure and the meaning of a language.
11 Syntax: Rules What the Rules of syntax Do????? 1. Combine words in to phrases and phrases in to sentencesa girl, in the garden (phrases)I saw a girl in the garden. (sentence)2. Specify correct word orderSara ate chocolates.Chocolates ate Sara.*
12 Syntax: Rules3. Describe relationship between meanings of a particular group of words and the arrangement of those wordsHe burps what he means.He means what he burps.(Same words but different meanings)4. Specify the grammatical relations of a sentence , such as subject and direct object (makes it clear who is doing what to whom). This information is crucial in understanding the meaning of a sentence.My dog chased your cat.Your cat chased my dog.
13 Syntax: Rules5. Specify other constraints that sentences must adhere to.The boy found. *The boy found quickly.*The boy found the ball.(Last sentence is correct because verb ‘found’ must be followed by sth., needs an object, a noun object not adv.)She slept the baby. *She slept soundly.(Last sentence is correct because verb ‘slept’ needs an adverb rather than a noun)
15 Syntax: Study of Sentences Syntax is study of sentencesWhat is a sentence???A sentence is basically a string of words that follow the grammatical rules of a language.A sentence expresses a complete thoughtA sentence is made up of phrases. At the very least a sentence contains a verb phrase (also known as the predicate) and a subject.
16 Syntax: Study of Sentences When smaller structures enter into combinations, some consideration must be given to the relationship holding between them within the combination. For example, “Birds fly” consists of structures commonly called noun and verb.The combination is a larger structure called a sentence.Within the sentence both words have a structure and a function.
17 Syntax: Study of Sentences Syntax studies two cardinal points in sentences:Form of sentence (related to internal structure of phrase: noun phrase, verb phrase……)Function of sentence (related to relational concepts like subject, object…..)
18 Sentence: Possible Components according to function Subject: obligatory element; it specifies the entity about which we will say something (the doer of the action, the entity described, etc.)He is opening the door.Sara finished her work.Object: obligatory element, it completes the meaning of a word or sentence.I watch television.
19 Sentence: Possible Components according to function Subject or Object Complement: obligatory element that adds a description of the subject or the object. These function also receive the names of Attribute and Predicative.They became angry.Modifier: optional element; adds additional information that specifies a nounAli, my best friend, is absent today.
20 Sentence: Possible Components according to function Adverbial: optional element; modifies a verb, adjective or adverbChildren are playing in the ground.Verb: doing elementThey are playing outside.
21 Sentence: Possible Components according to function (Summary)
22 Sentence: Components according to from Syntax is study of sentences.Sentences are often composed of phrases.What is a phrase?A phrase is a part of a sentence. It does not express a complete thought.A phrase is a group of words that function as a single unit. Usually they can be substituted by a pronominal form.
23 Sentence: Components according to from Parts of Phrases:Nucleus/ Head: All phrases have one word which is the nucleus, the head. The head of a phrase determines the kind of phrase we have: Noun Phrase, Adjective Phrase, Adverb Phrase, Prepositional Phrase or Verb Phrase.Surrounding Information: All related information about the head
24 Sentence: Components according to from Types of Phrases:Noun PhraseAdjective PhraseAdverb PhrasePrepositional PhraseVerb Phrase
25 Sentence: Components according to from Noun PhraseA Noun Phrase (NP) is a phrase that is made up of at least one noun (or a pronoun). The noun is the head of the NP.NPs usually function as:Subjects: THE MAN spoke loudly.Objects: I met YOUR FRIEND yesterday.I’ll see you after THE CLASS.Subject Complements: She is A DOCTOR.Adverbials: Anna got married LAST MONTH.
26 Sentence: Components according to from Adjective PhraseAn Adjective Phrase (AP) is a phrase that is made up of at least one adjective. The adjective is the head of the NP.APs usually function as:Modifiers: I saw a SMALL child.Subject Complements: She is not HAPPY.Object Complements: I consider Peter STUPID.
27 Sentence: Components according to from Adverb Phrase:An Adverb Phrase (AdvP) is a phrase that is made up of at least one adverb. The adverb is the head of the AdvP.AdvPs usually function as:Adverbials:Andy was VERY late.Sally works HARD.
28 Sentence: Components according to from Prepositional Phrase:A Prepositional Phrase (PP) is a phrase that is made up of at least one preposition usually followed by a NP that functions as the object of the preposition. The preposition is the head of the PP.PPs usually function as:Adverbials: Anna got married IN JULY.Objects: I put the book ON THE TABLE.I bought a ring FOR MY MOTHER
29 Sentence: Components according to from Prepositional Phrase as Adjectival or Adverbial PhraseA prepositional phrase can also serve as adjectival or adverbial phrase.If prepositional phrase answers questions like which one? It is adjectival phrase.The lady in the red dress is my teacher.The movie on the T.V is boring.The ice in the juice was melting.
30 Sentence: Components according to from If prepositional phrase answers questions like where, when, how, how many, how often…. It is adverbial phrase.The lady is sitting in the next room.The boys were on the lift.They played in groups.
31 Sentence: Components according to from Verb PhraseA Verb Phrase (VP) is a phrase that is made up of at least one verb.Verb phrases often contain noun phrases, prepositional phrases or adverb phrases that function as objects or adverbials of the verb. The verb is the head of the VP.VPs function as the head of the clause.
33 References Falk, Julia. Linguistics and Language. 1978. Fromkin, Rodman & Hymas Language: Nature, Psychology and Grammatical Aspects. Us: WadsworthHocket, F. C. A Course in Modern Linguistics. New Delhi: Oxford. 1958Parsad, Tarni, A Course in Linguistics, 2012, New Dehli: PHIRajimwale, Sharad, Elements of General Linguistics, 2006.Strang, Barbara. Modern English Structure. Edward ArnoldTallerman. Understanding Syntax.Valin, R. D. V. An Introduction to Syntax. Cambridge Press. 2001Yule, George. The Study of Language