1 SECTION 4- RUSSIAN CZARS INCREASE POWER BIG IDEA- Peter the Great made many changes in Russia to try to make it more like western Europe
2 The First Czar- Ivan IVIvan IV of Russia came to the throne at 16 years oldHe seized control from the Boyars who are Russian land owning nobles.Ivan also married Anastasia Romanov, from the powerful Romanov Boyar family.He took the title Czar since the Russian king married the last Byzantine (aka Roman) princess.
3 Ivan IV into Ivan THE TERRIBLE During his first 13 years, Ivan was winning wars/ land, gave Russia a great law code, and ruled justlyHowever, after 1560 when Anastasia died, Ivan blamed the Boyars.He organized a secret police to hunt down Boyars
4 Ivan the Terrible Hunts “Traitors” Using his secret police, Ivan hunted down any Boyar who was rumored to be a “traitor”.He would then also hunt down that Boyar’s family even their serfs and their families.
5 Ivan the Terrible Kills His Own Son? Ivan even famously killed his own sonTherefore, Ivan’s second son, who was very sickly, took over and died just three years after Ivan.
6 Michael RomanovWhen Ivan’s son past away, Michael Romanov was chosen by representatives of Russian cities.Romanov was Anastasia’s grandnephewRomanov establishes a dynasty that goes from
7 The Romanov’s Restore Order The Romanovs strengthened Russia by passing a great law code and putting down revoltsSince they held total power, and Ivan the Terrible executed powerful boyars, they could become absolute monarchs as well.Their first was Peter The Great
8 Before Peter the Great… Russia was backwards with so many boyars and serfsWhen a boyar sold land, he sold serfs on it tooBoyars could pay debts with Serfs
9 Other Problems Before Peter… The Mongols isolated Russia from EuropeRussia had no warm water port city, they froze over during the winter months (Oct-April)Religiously, the Russians were Orthodox and not Catholic or Protestant, thus looked at as heretics.
10 Peter Visits the WestAs Peter the Great grew up, he was fascinated by Western European waysAs he came to the throne at 24, he embarked on the “Grand Embassy” and traveled throughout Western EuropeHe met every major European leader in every European Country
11 Peter Visits the WestPeter realized that he needed to Westernize, or modernize, RussiaThis is how he became an Absolute RulerHe would Westernize Russia through:The Orthodox ChurchLimiting The BoyarsRussia’s Military
12 Peter Westernizes the Russian Orthodox Church Peter brought the Russian Orthodox Church under state control.He abolished the Patriarch, or leader, and set up a Holy Synod, or councilThis Synod was set up and appointed by him.
13 Peter Westernizes the Boyars Peter controlled the Boyars through western traditions of granting titles and land to peopleSince these new Russian “Lords” were given everything by Peter, they were incredibly loyal
14 Peter Westernizes the Russia Military Peter modernizes his military by hiring European officers.These officers drilled the Russians in European military tactics with European weaponsBy his death Peter had an army of 20,000 well trained/ elite soldiers.
15 Peter Westernizes Russia As Peter Westernized he also:Introduced potatoes, becoming a Russian standard for food and drinkStarted the first Russian newspaper, which he conveniently edited himself.Raised women’s social status by having them at social eventsOrdered nobles to give up their traditional clothes and fashions, for Western ones…
16 For example… Before/ After Peter Official painting of Russian Czar Right Before Peter the GreatOfficial Painting of Peter the Great during his reign
17 Moving the CapitalThe most symbolic move the Peter made to Westernize Russia was moving the capital from Moscow, Michael Romanov’s cityThe city Peter moved it to was won after 21 long years of fighting the Swedish.Although it was built on a swamp, killing up to 100,000 Russians in its construction, St. Petersburg, Russia was built.
18 St Petersburg as the Capital Peter builds his great palace, The Hermitage, and forces all Russian nobles to move thereThis was the culmination of Peter’s Westernization as Russia now also had its all year port city and capital