Presentation on theme: "El Imperfecto. The imperfect form of hay is había (there was; there were; there used to be). ¡Atención! Ir, ser, and ver are the only verbs that are irregular."— Presentation transcript:
The imperfect form of hay is había (there was; there were; there used to be). ¡Atención! Ir, ser, and ver are the only verbs that are irregular in the imperfect.
Uses of the imperfect As a general rule, the imperfect is used to describe actions which are seen by the speaker as incomplete or “continuing,” while the preterite is used to describe actions which have been completed. The imperfect expresses what was happening at a certain time or how things used to be. The preterite, in contrast, expresses a completed action.
These expressions are often used with the imperfect because they express habitual or repeated actions: de niño/a (as a child), todos los días (every day), mientras (while).
You will also see the preterite and the imperfect together in narratives such as fiction, news, and retelling of events. The imperfect provides background information, such as time, weather, and location, while the preterite indicates the specific events that occurred.
SE Previously, you learned how to use se as the third person reflexive pronoun (El se despierta. Ellos se visten. Ella se baña.). Se can also be used to form constructions in which the person performing the action is not expressed or is de-emphasized.
SE You often see the impersonal se in signs, advertisements, and directions.
SE Se for unplanned events Se also describes accidental or unplanned events. In this construction, the person who performs the action is de- emphasized, implying that the accident or unplanned event is not his or her direct responsibility. Note this construction.
In Spanish, the command forms are used to give orders or advice. You use tú commands (mandatos familiares) when you want to give an order or advice to someone you normally address with the familiar tú.
Verbos irregulares There are 8 irregular affirmative tú commands
Negative tú commands The negative tú commands are formed by dropping the final -o of the yo form of the present tense. For -ar verbs, add -es. For -er and -ir verbs, add -as.
Verbs ending in -car, -gar, and -zar have a spelling change in the negative tú commands.
¡Atención! In affirmative commands, reflexive, indirect, and direct object pronouns are always attached to the end of the verb. In negative commands, these pronouns always precede the verb. Bórralos. / No los borres. Escríbeles un correo electrónico. / No les escribas un correo electrónico.
Spanish has two types of possessive adjectives: the unstressed (or short) forms you learned previously and the stressed (or long) forms. The stressed forms are used for emphasis or to express of mine, of yours, and so on.
Possessive pronouns Possessive pronouns are used to replace a noun + [possessive adjective]. In Spanish, the possessive pronouns have the same forms as the stressed possessive adjectives, and they are preceded by a definite article.
A possessive pronoun agrees in number and gender with the noun it replaces.
As you learned in Lección 2, the command forms are used to give orders or advice. Formal commands are used with people you address as usted or ustedes. Observe these examples, then study the chart.
¡Atención! When a pronoun is attached to an affirmative command that has two or more syllables, an accent mark is added to maintain the original stress.
In affirmative commands, reflexive, indirect and direct object pronouns are always attached to the end of the verb.
In negative commands, these pronouns always precede the verb.
You will now learn how to use the subjunctive with verbs and expressions of will and influence.
Verbs of will and influence are often used when someone wants to affect the actions or behavior of other people. ¡Atención! In English, constructions using the infinitive, such as I want you to go, are often used with verbs or expressions of will or influence. This is not the case in Spanish, where the subjunctive would be used in a subordinate clause.