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Primary and Secondary Data

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1 Primary and Secondary Data
Experiment Survey Primary and Secondary Data Interview

2 Objectives of this lesson: Primary and Secondary Data
Define secondary and primary data Describe primary data collection methods Describe sampling techniques Identify advantages disadvantages of different data gathering techniques Construct a survey

3 Secondary Data Data gathered by another source (e.g. research study, survey, interview) Secondary data is gathered BEFORE primary data. WHY? Because you want to find out what is already known about a subject before you dive into your own investigation. WHY? Because some of your questions can possibly have been already answered by other investigators or authors. Why “reinvent the wheel”?

4 Primary Data Data never gathered before
Advantage: find data you need to suit your purpose Disadvantage: usually more costly and time consuming than collecting secondary data Collected after secondary data is collected

5 Sampling Techniques Population - total group of respondents that the researcher wants to study. Populations are too costly and time consuming to study in entirety. Sample - selecting and surveying respondents (research participants) from the population.

6 Sampling Techniques A probability sample is one that gives every member of the population a known chance of being selected. simple random sample - anyone stratified sample - different groups (ages) cluster sample - different areas (cities) All are selected randomly.

7 Sampling Techniques A non-probability sample is an arbitrary grouping that limits the use of some statistical tests. It is not selected randomly. convenience sample - readily available quota sample - maintain representation

8 Primary Research Methods
Advantages Disadvantages Primary Research Methods Focus Groups – bring together respondents with common characteristics Observation - actually view respondents Experiment - controlled variables and respondent groups. Non-personal survey – on site, telephone, mail, fax, computer, panel Personal interview - one-on-one survey with respondents Company records – internal document survey research

9 Constructing the Questionnaire
Select the correct types of questions: open ended – harder to score but get “richer” information closed ended, dichotomous – offer two either/or responses (true/false; yes/no; for/against multiple choice – select one or more than one scaled response – gather range of “values” (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree, neutral, somewhat agree, strongly agree

10 1. Have you had any of the following medical preventive tests/exams?
_____ mammogram (if a women) _____ prostate exam (if a man) _____ lung x-ray _____ electrocardiogram _____ stress test

11 2. Do you currently smoke? _____ YES _____ NO

12 Please evaluate the following statement:
I understand the University’s code of conduct as it relates to plagiarism. ____ absolutely agree ____ somewhat agree ____ neutral ____ somewhat disagree ____ absolutely disagree

13 Important characteristics of good questionnaires
Plan a user-friendly format Gather demographic data – age, gender, etc., when necessary. Guarantee anonymity Ensure ease of tabulation – Scantron forms Ask well-phrased and unambiguous questions that can be answered Develop for completeness – get all the data Pilot test the instrument

14 Assignment Prepare a questionnaire (word processed on paper) that you utilized to gather the primary data for the formal report case. The questionnaire will be inserted as an appendix at the end of your formal report. Remember, you should include on the survey: an introductory statement about the purpose of the survey, a motivational reason why customers should take it, and a reminder to participants that they are taking the survey anonymously. You should NOT include on the survey: answer percentages

15 Introductory Statement
Example Questionnaire Introductory Statement The purpose of this survey is to help management identify family issues that our employees experience that are related to job performance. Please respond to the following survey items by checking the appropriate response next to each question/item. Your responses are completely anonymous and will only be used to assess overall employee characteristics. purpose of the survey ensure anonymity

16 END

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