Presentation on theme: "Primary and Secondary Data"— Presentation transcript:
1 Primary and Secondary Data ExperimentSurveyPrimary and Secondary DataInterview
2 Objectives of this lesson: Primary and Secondary Data Define secondary and primary dataDescribe primary data collection methodsDescribe sampling techniquesIdentify advantages disadvantages of different data gathering techniquesConstruct a survey
3 Secondary DataData gathered by another source (e.g. research study, survey, interview)Secondary data is gathered BEFORE primary data. WHY?Because you want to find out what is already known about a subject before you dive into your own investigation. WHY?Because some of your questions can possibly have been already answered by other investigators or authors. Why “reinvent the wheel”?
4 Primary Data Data never gathered before Advantage: find data you need to suit your purposeDisadvantage: usually more costly and time consuming than collecting secondary dataCollected after secondary data is collected
5 Sampling TechniquesPopulation - total group of respondents that the researcher wants to study. Populations are too costly and time consuming to study in entirety.Sample - selecting and surveying respondents (research participants) from the population.
6 Sampling TechniquesA probability sample is one that gives every member of the population a known chance of being selected.simple random sample - anyonestratified sample - different groups (ages)cluster sample - different areas (cities)All are selected randomly.
7 Sampling TechniquesA non-probability sample is an arbitrary grouping that limits the use of some statistical tests. It is not selected randomly.convenience sample - readily availablequota sample - maintain representation
8 Primary Research Methods AdvantagesDisadvantagesPrimary Research MethodsFocus Groups – bring together respondents with common characteristicsObservation - actually view respondentsExperiment - controlled variables and respondent groups.Non-personal survey – on site, telephone, mail, fax, computer, panelPersonal interview - one-on-one survey with respondentsCompany records – internal document survey research
9 Constructing the Questionnaire Select the correct types of questions:open ended – harder to score but get “richer” informationclosed ended, dichotomous – offer two either/or responses (true/false; yes/no; for/againstmultiple choice – select one or more than onescaled response – gather range of “values” (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree, neutral, somewhat agree, strongly agree
10 1. Have you had any of the following medical preventive tests/exams? _____ mammogram (if a women)_____ prostate exam (if a man)_____ lung x-ray_____ electrocardiogram_____ stress test
12 Please evaluate the following statement: I understand the University’s code of conduct as it relates to plagiarism.____ absolutely agree____ somewhat agree____ neutral____ somewhat disagree____ absolutely disagree
13 Important characteristics of good questionnaires Plan a user-friendly formatGather demographic data – age, gender, etc., when necessary.Guarantee anonymityEnsure ease of tabulation – Scantron formsAsk well-phrased and unambiguous questions that can be answeredDevelop for completeness – get all the dataPilot test the instrument
14 AssignmentPrepare a questionnaire (word processed on paper) that you utilized to gather the primary data for the formal report case.The questionnaire will be inserted as an appendix at the end of your formal report.Remember, you should include on the survey:an introductory statement about the purpose of the survey,a motivational reason why customers should take it, anda reminder to participants that they are taking the survey anonymously.You should NOT include on the survey:answer percentages
15 Introductory Statement ExampleQuestionnaireIntroductory StatementThe purpose of this survey is to help management identify family issues that our employees experience that are related to job performance. Please respond to the following survey items by checking the appropriate response next to each question/item. Your responses are completely anonymous and will only be used to assess overall employee characteristics.purpose of the surveyensure anonymity