Presentation on theme: "Research Seminar Fourth Year Research Candidates Topic: Data Collection Tools October 17, 2014 Bethlehem Moravian College Dr. Abrilene Johnston-Scott Research."— Presentation transcript:
Research Seminar Fourth Year Research Candidates Topic: Data Collection Tools October 17, 2014 Bethlehem Moravian College Dr. Abrilene Johnston-Scott Research Coordinator
Overview of Session – Interviews – Observations – Focus group discussions – Document reviews – Questionnaires-Likert Scale
Interviews allow researchers to: – Explore participants’ perspectives in their own terms – Inquire about the meaning people attach to certain events Interviews can be: – Informal – conversational – Structured - fixed-response – Semi-structured
Types of Interview Questions Six types of interview questions: 1) Background/demographic questions 2) Knowledge questions 3) Experience/behavior questions 4) Opinion/values questions 5) Feelings questions 6) Sensory questio ns
Types of Interviews Informal-conversation Questions emerge from the immediate context Semi-structured Topics selected in advance Researcher determines sequence and wording during interview. Standardized open-ended Exact wording and sequence of questions predetermined.
Interviews have component parts Main questions identified in advance (6-10). Follow-up questions (for example, asking for more detail or nuance in individual responses. Probes – techniques used to keep a discussion going. Questions can be skipped or order varied depending on the flow of conversation. Use opened ended questions.
Purpose of observation – Describe the context – See what is spoken about first hand – Confirm reports of respondents Develop an observation checklist Observation as: – as outsider - unobtrusive – participant observation Generates field notes (narratives: on students behaviour or interest)
Observation Example Who you will observe: youth attending the program What you will observe: – Age, gender – Length of time student stays in the program – Involvement in activities: which activities Level of involvement – Interactions with other youth; with staff When you will observe: all hours the program is open for one week each month during 2014
Recording your observation It is not good enough to just observe, you need to record your observations. You might use: – Recording sheet – Checklist – Field note – Picture – Combination of the above
Sample Observation Guides Guide for structured observationsGuide for unstructured observations
Are used to assess people’s perceptions about programs, candidates, products or services. Are used to generate recommendations for changing programs, products, campaign strategies, and services. Are often used in conjunction with needs assessments or to generate ideas or explore themes that can be used in descriptive studies. Are used to answer questions about how or why programs work.
Focus Group May be used in conjunction with other research methods. Include six to eight participants who are selected using purposive sampling methods Utilize a semi-structured interview guide with 6-8 questions. Require that a facilitator ask each of the questions and solicit responses from members. Are used to generate a common response or a consensus from group members.
A Focus Group... Usually has approximately seven to ten people in them With common characteristics relating to the discussion topic Conducted by a trained interviewer (moderator, facilitator). 16
Moderator’s Role Stays relaxed and sets tone Introduces and guides the discussion Actively and carefully listens Does NOT participate, or share views, or engage in the discussion Does NOT editorialize comments Promotes everyone’s participation Is non-judgmental and is respectful 17
Notetaker’s Role Tests and places the audio recording equipment Note: it helps to talk to participants beforehand to gauge and quiet the speakers Comes prepared with pens and paper Sits in the room during the entire discussion where they can see & hear the participants Note: do not sit by the facilitator Sketches participant seating arrangement Note: use identifiers other than names 18
Document review Obtain access to key documents and records at the outset Documents can help to establish what needs to be pursued through other methods (e.g., direct observation, interviews) Consider whether the documents are public – ethical issues Examples: school reports, attendance registers, standardised test scores
Triangulation –divergent sources of information – Methods (interviews, observations, document analysis etc) – Sources (different teachers, or teachers with other school staff) Member check– ask participants to confirm transcripts/analyses Triangulation
Dr. Rensis Likert (1903 - 1981) “ A technique for the measurement of Attitudes”
What is the Likert scale? It is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires. It is the most widely used approach to scaling responses in survey research. Likert scales are a non-comparative scaling technique and are one-dimensional in nature. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item respondents specify their level of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree-disagree scale for a series of statements. Thus, the range captures the intensity of their feelings for a given item, while the results of analysis of multiple items reveals a pattern that has scaled properties of the kind Likert identities
Five – point Likert item Likert Scale Difference Likert item
1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree The format of a typical five-level Likert item
Example: Codes: 1-strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3- neutral, 4-agree, 5- strongly agree S/NAffirmative perception statementsCodes (i)OPAC / Web OPAC was Easier to use than I expected12345 (ii)It was Fun to use12345 (iii)It was Easy to use12345 (iv)It helped me in finding the documents faster12345 (v)It is Very difficult to use12345 (vi)It is Very confusing to use12345 (vii)I found more items than expected12345 (viii)I am comfortable with simple search12345 (ix)I am comfortable complex/Advance search12345 (x)I am comfortable quick search12345 (xi)I am comfortable when using OPAC/Web OPAC12345 Q.18.Please measure the following affirmative perceptions about your library OPAC and Web OPAC use.