2 Three Key Energy Nutrients 1.2.3._______________ is the usual form in which carbs are digested in humansIt is stored within the skeletal muscle and liver as _____________Glucose can be broken down by the body to produce an _______________________We use these through bioenergetic conversion to carry out physical activity
3 ATPThe end result of the breakdown of nutrients is the production of various amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
4 ATP- the scienceATP is the _______________ energy source for muscular contraction.An ATP molecule consists of an adenosine molecule bonded to ____ phosphate (P) groups.ATP molecules are supplied by chemical reactions that take place in the _________________ found in muscle cells.
5 ATP = ADP + Energy + PHEATChemicalreactionENERGYPPPPPPAdenosineAdenosineTo release the energy, a phosphate molecule breaks away from the phosphate group through hydrolysis to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
6 A A P P P P P ADP requires ___________ to become ATP again! Note: Energy inEnergy outNote:
7 Revisiting the Sliding Filament theory for Application of ATP Consumption Breaking ATP into ADP releases energy and allows _________________________formation to occur between the myosin and actin filaments inside the muscle.
8 Two Energy Systems Aerobic Anaerobic An energy system which is used in prolonged continuous activity in the presence of oxygen and does not produce lactic acid.AnaerobicEnergy systems that do not rely on the immediate use of oxygen. There are two types of anaerobic energy systems.
9 3 Metabolic Pathways Anaerobic Alactic (ATP-CP) or (ATP-PC) A short term energy of both fast and slow twitch muscle fibres that does not require oxygen and does not produce lactic acid.Anaerobic Lactic (glycolysis)A fast twitch muscle energy system which does not require the immediate use of oxygen but does produce lactic acid.Next Class:Aerobic (cellular respiration)
10 Anaerobic Alactic - ATP-CP System An immediate - _______________phosphate systemInvolves _____ power output activities that require an immediate high rate of energy production for a short period of time.HEATPPPAdenosineENERGYInvolves activities such as
11 As muscle contraction begins, the body’s metabolism may not be able to supply ATP to the contracting muscle cells as rapidly as required…The body must then make use of _______________________.(the chemical reaction that must occur for contraction)ADPCreatine phosphate serves as _____________________________for muscles as it is broken down into creatine and phosphate.CP-P / CCreatine(on its own)+PPPAdenosineENERGYATP
12 ATP- Potential EnergyThe free phosphate ions bonds with ADP to produce ATP and leave behind creatine.The new ATP molecule is stored as _____________________________.Potential Energy
13 Anaerobic Alactic Characteristics Oxygen isLactic acid isOnly a ___________ amount of ATP and CP is stored in muscle fibres;Uses very large amounts of energy in a short period of time;The rate of recovery is relatively rapid. After a brief rest, the system is recharged and ready for the next sprint;The system can only provide energy for muscles for the first ___________ seconds of high intense activity;Uses both fast and slow twitch muscles;Work output is relatively high.Formula:
14 Anaerobic Lactic - Glycolysis If an athlete must continue vigorous work a ___________ energy system uses a complex biochemical process which __________________________________________________.Lactic AcidCarbsGlucose/glycogenENERGYADP + P ATP
15 Glycolysis Glycolysis breaks _____________ down into energy (ATP) Glucose is plentiful throughout the bodyGlycolysis is the ____________ sequence of reaction in the full metabolsim of glucoseTherefore glycolysis alone will allow the body to be active for medium term activities
16 A A Glycolysis- produces 2 ATP 1 Glycogen molecule P P P P P P Pyruvate/Lactic AcidEnergy is produced with a buildup of________________
17 Characteristics of the Lactic Acid System The energy source is entirely __________________;Oxygen isEnergy is provided forUses predominately fast twitch muscle fibresWork output is moderateUsed in sports such as football, basketball and hockey.Formula:
18 The Effects of Lactic Acid During intense exercise, lactic acid builds up in the blood __________________________.As lactic acid builds up an athlete will reach their anaerobic threshold (AT).This is the point where a person begins to feel discomfort and a ________________in their musclesthe muscle loses it ability to contract resulting in _____________________.
19 As work increases, the body reaches the: At this point the anaerobic system can no longer keep pace with the increasing requirements of the muscles.You either___________________________________LowExercise IntensityModerateThe anaerobic thresholdis the highest intensity ofworkload at which lactateclearance still keeps pacewith lactate production.Once this level is reachedthe intensity level mustdecrease to reduce theamount of lactic acid buildupHigh
20 The Effects of Lactic Acid Lactic acid causes _____ changes in the muscle fibres and they can no longer respond to stimulation (___________________________________).Lactic acid interferes with cross- bridge bonding by limiting the strength of the fibre contraction on the Actin.When lactic acid accumulates, extreme fatigue sets in and __________________develops.Oxygen debt is the reason you must breathe
21 Oxygen DebtOxygen debt refers to post exercise oxygen consumption where the body needs to _________________its debt incurred after the exercise is overYou will notice that even after you are done racing you will continue to breath hard.At this point your body is still trying to repay the oxygen debt that was created when you were working hard.After you stop ________________, your body needs extra oxygen to burn up the excess lactic acid and return your energy reserves to normal.Lactic acid cannot be removed until
22 Cori CyleAfter exercise where lactic acid has built up you need to convert it back to ____________________converting to ______ is important for future conversion to glucose and glycogen for future anaerobic useIn the muscle_________becomes __________ which can be transported in __________lactate is transported by the blood to liver where most of it is converted back to glucose, from which glycogen is formed in a process called __________________about one-sixth of the lactate is oxidized to carbon dioxide
24 The Effect of Training on the Lactic Acid System At any level of work, the rate of lactic acid build-up is decreased through training.
25 How do you know if your workouts are pushing your Anaerobic Threshold? Elite athletes use the _____________which requires a hand-held device that directly measures blood lactate concentration. The corresponding heart rate at the AT gives you a convenient way of monitoring your workouts.