3 What Is A Party? Political Party Major Parties Is a group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and holding of public office.Major PartiesRepublicanDemocratBoth parties are no primarily principle or issue oriented.???????They are election oriented.What Is A Party?
4 What Do Parties Do? Nominate Candidates Name candidates for public officeParties select candidates and the present them to the voters.Informing and Activating SupportersThe parties inform the people, and inspire and activate their interests and participation in public affairs.The Bonding Agent FunctionBond- is an agreement that protects a person or company against loss caused by a third party.The party acts as a bonding agent to ensure the good performance of its candidates and officeholders.GoverningCongress and state legislatures are organized on party lines, and they conduct much of their business on the basis of partisanship.Acting as WatchdogParties act as watchdogs over the conduct of public’s business.It plays this role as it criticizes the policies and behavior of the party in power.What Do Parties Do?
6 Why a two-party system? Historical Basis The Force of Tradition Federalists vs. Anti-FederalistsGeorge Washington’s Farewell AddressThe Force of TraditionAccept the idea of a two party system, simply because there has always been one.The Electoral SystemSingle member districts- candidate is elected to each office on the ballot. Winner takes all.The American Ideological ConsensusRepublican- in favor of private market forces in the economy and to argue that the Federal Government should be less extensively involved in social welfare programs.Democrats- vote for a candidate who supports social welfare, government regulation, of business practices, and efforts to improve the status of minorities.Why a two-party system?
7 Multiparty Systems Replacement of a two party system They would replace it with a multiparty system, which several major and minor parties exist, seriously compete for, and actually win public offices.Would this work in America?Multiparty Systems
8 One Party Systems This is really a no party system. Democrats and Republicans go back and forth as far as popularity.States also have their party that they are affiliated with.The State of Utah???One Party Systems
9 Party Membership Patterns This is purely voluntary.Its what they choose to be.Parties must be able to attract supporters.Supporters can be young, old, city-dwellers, suburbanites, and rural residents among it members.They can also be any age to support any political party.Different PartiesThe Libertarian PartyProhibition National CommitteeAmerica First PartyThe Constitution PartyThe Natural Law PartyThe Socialists Labor PartyGreen Party of the United StatesThe Communists PartyParty Membership Patterns
11 The Nation’s First Parties FederalistsFormed around Alexander HamiltonParty of the rich and the well bornMost of them supported the ConstitutionWorked to create a stronger national government.Appealed to Financial, manufacturing, and commercial interests.Liberal interpretation of the Constitution.JeffersonianFollowers of the Common ManVery limited role for the new government.Congress should dominate that new government.Its policies should help the nation’s small shopkeepers, farmers, laborers, and planters.First election in which they clashed was in 1796John Adams beating Jefferson by 3 votes.The Nation’s First Parties
12 American Parties: Four Major Eras Era of the DemocratsThomas Jefferson’s election marked the beginning .This will last until the Civil War.The Era of the RepublicansThe Civil War sparked the beginning for a one party domination.McKinleyGrover ClevelandTaftRooseveltThe Return of the DemocratsFranklin RooseveltTrumanThe Start of a New EraRichard Nixon-RepublicanGerald Ford-RepublicanJimmy Carter- DemocratRonald Reagan- RepublicanGeorge Bush- RepublicanWilliam Jefferson Clinton- DemocratGeorge HW Bush- RepublicanBarack Obama- DemocratAmerican Parties: Four Major Eras
14 Minor Parties in the United States Ideological PartiesParties based on a particular set of beliefs.Single Issue PartiesThey focus on only one public-policy matter.Economic Protest PartiesThey have been rooted in economic discontent.Splinter PartiesThey have split from one of the major parties.Minor Parties in the United States
15 Why Minor Parties Are Important Still have an impact on American politics and on the major parties.Minor parties continue to be active today.Many minor parties also seek seats in Congress or run for various State and local offices.Why Minor Parties Are Important
17 The Decentralized Nature of the Parties The Role of The PresidencyThe President’s Party is usually more organized than the opposing party.President is automatically the party leader.The Impact of FederalismFederalism is one major reason for the decentralized nature of the two major parties is to gain control of the government.They do this by winning elective offices.The Role of the Nominating ProcessPlays a central role in the life of political parties.First: Candidate selection is an intraparty process. Nomination within the party.Second: The nominating process can be a divisive one. Fight over the nomination.Prime process is making of their nomination.The Decentralized Nature of the Parties
19 National Party Machinery The National ConventionThe Party’s national voiceThe National CommitteeThe parties affairs are handledThe National ChairpersonLeader of the national committee.Chosen in a four year termThe Congressional Campaign CommitteesEach party also has a campaign committee in each house of Congress. These committees work to reelect incumbents and to make sure that seats given up remain in the party.National Party Machinery
20 State and Local Party Machinery The State OrganizationAt the State level, party machinery is built around a State central committee, headed by a State chairperson.Chairperson and committee work together to further the parties interests.Local OrganizationWard- is a unit into which cities are often divided for the election of city council members.Precinct- Is the smallest unit of election administration; the voters in each precinct report to one polling place.State and Local Party Machinery
21 The Three Components of the Party 1- The Party OrganizationThese are the party leadersActivistsAll who give their time, money and skills to the party.2- The Party in the electorateThe party’s loyalists who vote on a straight party ticket.Party Members3- The Party in GovernmentParty’s officeholdersThose who hold executive, judicial, legislative offices in the federal, state and local levels.The Three Components of the Party
22 The Future of the Major Parties The present, weakened state of the parties can be traced to several factors:1- A sharp drop in the number of voters wiling to identify themselves with their party.2- A big increase in split-ticket voting. Voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same election.3- Various structural changes and reforms that have made the parties more open but led to internal disorganization.4- Changes in technology of campaigning for office. Television and internet.5- The growth in both numbers and impact, of single issue organizations in our politics.The Future of the Major Parties