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A Long View of South Asian History, from the Mughals to Partition & Independence Prof. Ned Bertz Department of History, UHM Infusing South Asian Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "A Long View of South Asian History, from the Mughals to Partition & Independence Prof. Ned Bertz Department of History, UHM Infusing South Asian Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Long View of South Asian History, from the Mughals to Partition & Independence Prof. Ned Bertz Department of History, UHM Infusing South Asian Studies into the Undergraduate Curriculum Asian Studies Development Program, East-West Center July 19, 2010

2 Eras in South Asian History Friday Indus Valley Civilizations, ~2600-1750 BCE The Coming of the Aryans and the Age of the Epics, ~1500-400 BCE India’s First Imperial Unification: The Mauryan Empire, 4 th -2 nd c. BCE Dark Age, or Age of Empires?: Mauryas to Guptas, 2 nd c. BCE-5 th c. CE Integration and Regionalization, North and South: 5 th –10 th c. CE The Arrival of Islam and the Delhi Sultanate, 10 th -16 th c. Today The Mughal Empire and Collapse, 16 th -18 th c. Europeans in India, 16 th -18 th c. Company Raj and the ‘Mutiny’, 17 th c. – 1857/8 High Colonialism and Reform & Revival Movements, 1858-late 19 th c. The Rise of Nationalism, late 19 th c. – 1947 The Tragedy of Partition & the Achievement of Independence, 1947

3 Daulatabad (1327) of Muhammad Tughluq

4 Vijayanagar, 1346-1565 Harihara (died 1357) & Bukka (died 1377) Shaivite monk Vidyaranya

5

6 The Mughal Empire (1526-1858)

7 Babur, born 1483, ruled 1526-1530 (top right: portrait, top left: memoirs) Humayun (below), r. 1530-1556 1539 forced into exile 1555 returns to Delhi

8 The Great Mughals Akbar, r. 1556-1605 Jahangir, r. 1605-1627 Shah Jahan, r. 1627-1658 Aurangzeb, r. 1658-1707

9 Akbar, r. 1556-1605

10 Jahangir, r. 1605-27 Shah Jahan, r. 1627-58

11

12 Red Fort, Shahjahanabad, Delhi

13 Aurangzeb, r. 1658-1707

14 Eras in South Asian History Friday Indus Valley Civilizations, ~2600-1750 BCE The Coming of the Aryans and the Age of the Epics, ~1500-400 BCE India’s First Imperial Unification: The Mauryan Empire, 4 th -2 nd c. BCE Dark Age, or Age of Empires?: Mauryas to Guptas, 2 nd c. BCE-5 th c. CE Integration and Regionalization, North and South: 5 th –10 th c. CE The Arrival of Islam and the Delhi Sultanate, 10 th -16 th c. Today The Mughal Empire and Collapse, 16 th -18 th c. Europeans in India, 16 th -18 th c. Company Raj and the ‘Mutiny’, 17 th c. – 1857/8 High Colonialism and Reform & Revival Movements, 1858-late 19 th c. The Rise of Nationalism, late 19 th c. – 1947 The Tragedy of Partition & the Achievement of Independence, 1947

15 Voyages of Vasco da Gama

16 The East Offering its Riches to Britannia (1778)

17 Collapse of the Portuguese Maritime Empire in the 17 th Century Overextended in distance and finances Brutal methods Religious interference Rise of Dutch & English –Better ships and credit –Less attention to religion –Uninterested in territorial control

18 The British East India Company Founded 1600

19 English Factories 1617 Surat 1640 Madras* 1661 Bombay* 1690 Calcutta* *Presidencies

20 The “Battle” of Plassey, 1757 French East India Co. (1664) Bengal Nawab Siraj-ud-daula Black Hole of Calcutta Robert Clive Mir Jafar

21 Eras in South Asian History Friday Indus Valley Civilizations, ~2600-1750 BCE The Coming of the Aryans and the Age of the Epics, ~1500-400 BCE India’s First Imperial Unification: The Mauryan Empire, 4 th -2 nd c. BCE Dark Age, or Age of Empires?: Mauryas to Guptas, 2 nd c. BCE-5 th c. CE Integration and Regionalization, North and South: 5 th –10 th c. CE The Arrival of Islam and the Delhi Sultanate, 10 th -16 th c. Today The Mughal Empire and Collapse, 16 th -18 th c. Europeans in India, 16 th -18 th c. Company Raj and the ‘Mutiny’, 17 th c. – 1857/8 High Colonialism and Reform & Revival Movements, 1858-late 19 th c. The Rise of Nationalism, late 19 th c. – 1947 The Tragedy of Partition & the Achievement of Independence, 1947

22 1768: 25,000 Sepoys in Bengal 1790: 115,000 total soldiers 1805: 155,000 E. I. Company’s Military

23 Delhi/Mughals, 1803 Marathas, 1818 Sindh, 1842 Punjab/Sikhs, 1849 Subsidiary alliances Princely states Indirect rule

24 Interior & Exterior of the East India House, London The British East India Company *Profits: ₤ 3 million to ₤ 22 million between 1765-1818 *Charter of 1813 ends Company monopoly *Charter of 1833 ends Company trade entirely

25 Lord Bentinck (Gov.-Gen., 1828-35) The Abolition of Sati Act, 1829 Orientalists Anglicists Thomas Macaulay ‘Macaulay’s Minute’

26 The Sepoy Mutiny The Indian Mutiny The Revolt of 1857 The Rebellion of 1857 The Anglo-Indian War of 1857-58 The Indian Mutiny & Civil Rebellion of 1857 The Indian Civil War of 1857-58 The First War of Indian Independence The What-cha-ma-call-it of 1857

27 (Some of) The Grievances of 1857 British cultural policies of intervention British insolence and contempt for Indians, borne from a belief in European supremacy Severity of revenue assessment practices Degradation of landed and princely elites Sepoy complaints: pay, deployment, promotion Fears of forced conversion to Christianity

28 Meerut Delhi Bahadur Shah II Mughal Emperor

29 Loyalists *Bombay & Madras Armies *Many Punjabi Sikh Sepoys *Large landowners *Western- educated upper classes *Most princely states

30 Capture of the Last Mughal: Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi

31 Eras in South Asian History Friday Indus Valley Civilizations, ~2600-1750 BCE The Coming of the Aryans and the Age of the Epics, ~1500-400 BCE India’s First Imperial Unification: The Mauryan Empire, 4 th -2 nd c. BCE Dark Age, or Age of Empires?: Mauryas to Guptas, 2 nd c. BCE-5 th c. CE Integration and Regionalization, North and South: 5 th –10 th c. CE The Arrival of Islam and the Delhi Sultanate, 10 th -16 th c. Today The Mughal Empire and Collapse, 16 th -18 th c. Europeans in India, 16 th -18 th c. Company Raj and the ‘Mutiny’, 17 th c. – 1857/8 High Colonialism and Reform & Revival Movements, 1858-late 19 th c. The Rise of Nationalism, late 19 th c. – 1947 The Tragedy of Partition & the Achievement of Independence, 1947

32 1857: 1863: Ratio Goal: 1857: 40,000 British, 240,000 Sepoys 1863: 65,000 British, 140,000 Sepoys Ratio Goal: 1:2 or 1:3 (British: Sepoys) Martial races: Punjabi Muslims, Sikhs, Rajputs, Gurkhas, Pathans Non-martial races: Bengalis, Tamils, Maharashtrian Brahmins

33 (Selected) Famines: 1866-1867 3 m. affected, 800,000 dead1868-1870 21 m. affected, 400,000 dead1876-1878 36 m. affected, 3.5 million dead1896-1897 96 m. affected, 5+ million dead1899-1900 60 m. affected, 5 million dead

34 Hill Stations Shimla, from 1865 Summer Capital (Viceregal Lodge below, ‘Mall’ right) Civil Lines & Military Cantonments

35 Hindu & Muslim civil law codes (1860s)Hindu & Muslim civil law codes (1860s) The Peoples of India (1868)The Peoples of India (1868) Census of India (1871)Census of India (1871) Survey of India (1878)Survey of India (1878)

36 1877: Queen Victoria declared Empress of India

37 M. G. Ranade SOCIAL REFORMERS Reform and Revival in Late Nineteenth-Century India

38 [W]hat shall we revive? Shall we revive the old habits of our people?... With too many of us, a thing is true or false, righteous or sinful, simply because somebody in the past has said that it is so. Now the new idea which should take up the place of this helplessness and dependence is not the idea of a rebellious overthrow of authority, but that of freedom responsible to the voice of God in us. -M. G. Ranade (reformer), 1897

39 Cannot a revivalist…ask the reformers into what they wish to reform us?... Whether they want to make men of our women by putting them into those avocations for which nature never meant them?... Whether they want to reform us into Sunday drinkers of brandy and promiscuous eaters of beef? In short, whether they want to revolutionize our society by an outlandish imitation of European customs…and an undiminished adoption of European vice? -Lala Lajpat Rai (revivalist), 1904

40 B. G. Tilak Ganapati (Ganesh) Festival,1893 Shivaji Festival,1895 Officials Assassinated,1897

41 Eras in South Asian History Friday Indus Valley Civilizations, ~2600-1750 BCE The Coming of the Aryans and the Age of the Epics, ~1500-400 BCE India’s First Imperial Unification: The Mauryan Empire, 4 th -2 nd c. BCE Dark Age, or Age of Empires?: Mauryas to Guptas, 2 nd c. BCE-5 th c. CE Integration and Regionalization, North and South: 5 th –10 th c. CE The Arrival of Islam and the Delhi Sultanate, 10 th -16 th c. Today The Mughal Empire and Collapse, 16 th -18 th c. Europeans in India, 16 th -18 th c. Company Raj and the ‘Mutiny’, 17 th c. – 1857/8 High Colonialism and Reform & Revival Movements, 1858-late 19 th c. The Rise of Nationalism, late 19 th c. – 1947 The Tragedy of Partition & the Achievement of Independence, 1947

42 Indian National Congress (1885)

43 Agitation: Partition of Bengal, 1905-8 Viceroy Curzon, 1899-1905 Bande Mataram (Hail the Motherland!) Swadeshi (national self-reliance) Muslim League, 1906

44 Enter the Mahatma (Great Soul), 1915: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Rowlatt Acts, 1919 Ahimsa (non-violence) & Satyagraha Jallianwalla Bagh, Amritsar, 1919 General Dyer “I can no longer retain affection for a Government so evilly manned as it is nowadays.” – Gandhi, 1920

45 Mass Nationalism is Launched August 1, 1920: Tilak dies, non-cooperation movement launched Jawaharlal Nehru, INC (son of Motilal Nehru) & Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim League

46 Eras in South Asian History Friday Indus Valley Civilizations, ~2600-1750 BCE The Coming of the Aryans and the Age of the Epics, ~1500-400 BCE India’s First Imperial Unification: The Mauryan Empire, 4 th -2 nd c. BCE Dark Age, or Age of Empires?: Mauryas to Guptas, 2 nd c. BCE-5 th c. CE Integration and Regionalization, North and South: 5 th –10 th c. CE The Arrival of Islam and the Delhi Sultanate, 10 th -16 th c. Today The Mughal Empire and Collapse, 16 th -18 th c. Europeans in India, 16 th -18 th c. Company Raj and the ‘Mutiny’, 17 th c. – 1857/8 High Colonialism and Reform & Revival Movements, 1858-late 19 th c. The Rise of Nationalism, late 19 th c. – 1947 The Tragedy of Partition & the Achievement of Independence, 1947

47 A Devastating Victory: Independence and Partition in South Asia

48 1940 Lahore Resolution 1942 Quit India Movement

49 End of a United India, 1939-1947 1939 India forced into WWII 1940 Lahore Resolution 1942 Quit India movement 1945/6 Elections Congress: 90% open seats Muslim League: 30/30 seats in central legislature, 442/500 in provincial assemblies 1946 Bombay naval mutiny 1946 Last British proposal 1946 Great Calcutta Killing 1947 Mountbatten arrives

50 Partition of India, August 1947 Boundary Commission, Sir Radcliffe Pakistan: August 14 th, 1947 (Jinnah) India: August 15 th, 1947 (Nehru)


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