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Political Parties.

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1 Political Parties

2 in the most solemn manner, against the baneful effects of the
Who warned the nation of factions (group seeking to promote partisan interests) in the quote below? Let me… warn you, in the most solemn manner, against the baneful effects of the spirit of party.

3 What is a Political Party?
Essential to representative government Provides party competition for power No member dues Party Identification: self-proclaimed preference

4 What do Parties Do? Nominate candidates
Inform and inspire people to participate Articulate policies Coordinate policy making Act as watchdog

5 Why Two-Party System? No solid answers, a combination of answers
Two-party rooted from beginning First two set precedent Single-member districts (one per office) Plurality (winner by largest # of votes cast) Easier to compare two people Pluralistic society (several distinct groups) Same yet different

6 Parties can be thought of in 3 parts:
Party-in-the-electorate: identify with party Decline of both parties Upsurge of independents Party as organization: keep the party running National office, full-time staff, rules National Conventions (4 Years) National Committee Party-in-government: people in office Party control matters when official are elected

7 The Party in the Electorate

8 Party Organization 50 Party System: they are all different
Well-organized Spend lots of money Some have more power than others Closed primaries Open primaries Blanket primaries Split-ticket voting Straight-ticket voting

9 National Chairpersons
Democrats Tim Kaine, VA Republicans Michael Steele

10 Party Organization National organization
National Convention: 4 yrs, write parties platform, nominate a candidate National Committee: composed of reps from states National Chairperson: person in charge of day-to-day activities of the National party

11 History of the Democrats and Republicans

12 Democrat & Republican Rap

13 Two-Party System Section 3
First Parties Federalist Alexander Hamilton, “Rich and well-born”, strong national gov’t, liberal interpretation of constitution Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson, more sympathetic to common man, strict interpretation of Constitution

14 Political Eras Party Eras: dominance of one political party for a lengthy period of time Divided government: when executive and legislative branches are controlled by different parties

15 American Parties: Four Major Eras
: The First Party System First party: Federalists : Jacksonian Democrats v. Whigs Modern party founded by Jackson Whigs formed to oppose Democrats : The Two Republican Eras Republicans rose as the antislavery party 1894 Depression kept Republicans in power : The New Deal Coalition Forged by the Democrats- relied upon urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners

16 The Era of the Democrats, 1800—1860
Democrats dominate all but two presidential elections. The Whig Party emerges in 1834, but declines by the 1850s, electing only two Presidents. The Republican Party is founded in 1854.

17 The Era of the Republicans, 1860—1932
Republicans dominate all but four presidential elections. The Civil War disables the Democratic Party for the remainder of the 1800s.

18 The Return of the Democrats, 1932—1968
Democrats dominate all but two presidential elections. Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President four times.

19 American Parties: Parties Today
The Start of a New Era: The Era of Divided Government Since 1968, neither Republicans nor Democrats have dominated the presidency and Congress has often been controlled by the opposing party. 1968–1976 Republicans hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Democrats 1976–1980 Democrats hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Democrats 1980–1992 Republicans hold the presidency Senate controlled by Republicans , controlled by Democrats from 1986 to 1994 1992 – 2000 Democrats hold the presidency Congress controlled by Republicans, 1994 to present 2000 Republicans hold the presidency Congress is controlled by Republicans

20 Minor Parties 4 Types Ideological: particular set of beliefs (Socialist, Communist) Single-issue: focus on 1 public policy (Right to Life Party (against abortion) Economic: rooted in period of economical discontent (Populist 1890) Splinter: split from one of the major parties Bull Moose 1912 (Progressive Party)

21 Third Parties: Their Impact on American Politics
Political parties other than Democrat or Republican Rarely win elections Third parties bring new groups and ideas into politics Two-party system discourages extreme views Spoiler role- “pull vote”

22 Summary Parties are a linkage institution
Parties’ goal is to win elections Parties have operated in several distinct party systems or eras The current party system is one of divided government and weak parties But this trend is beginning to change 22

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