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Chapter 5 Political Parties

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1 Chapter 5 Political Parties

2 Section 1—Parties and What They Do
What is a political party? Some are “issue” or “principle” oriented Some are oriented toward winning elections. What Do Parties Do? They are the medium for presenting opinions to the people. They are a link between the governed and those who govern. They work to blunt conflicts—Power Brokers

3 Section 1—Parties and What They Do
What Do Parties Do? (cont.) Nominating Candidates (recruiting and choosing) Informing and Activating Supporters The Bonding Agent Function (screening) Governing—”partisanship” Acting as Watchdog “ins and “outs” Loyal Opposition

4 Section 2—The Two-Party System

5 Section 2—The Two-Party System
Earl Dodge: six time presidential candidate Why a Two-Party System? Regional one-party presence at times The Historical Basis Federalists and anti-federalists Hamilton vs. Jefferson Washington: warned against “the baneful effects of the spirit of party.”

6 Section 2—The Two-Party System
Why a Two-Party System? (cont.) The Force of Tradition Long acceptance “that is just the way it is.” The Electoral System Single-member districts Plurality—largest number of votes cast Bipartisan nature discourages minor parties Non-major party candidates in only 7 elections

7 Section 2—The Two-Party System
Why a Two-Party System (cont.) The American Ideological Consensus Pluralistic Society—many cultures and groups Consensus—on most fundamental matters Middle-of-the-road tendency

8 Section 2—The Two-Party System
Multiparty Systems Many European nations Must build coalitions One-Party Systems Really no-party 1/3 of the States are mostly one-party

9 Section 2—The Two-Party System
Party Membership Patterns Cross section Democrats—African Americans, Catholics, Jews, Union members, etc. Republicans—white males, Protestants, business community, etc. Disrupting events can change patterns: Civil War Great Depression

10 Section 3—The Two-Party System in American History
The Nation’s First Parties Federalist—Alexander Hamilton Anti-Federalists under Thomas Jefferson. Became Jeffersonian Republicans; later Democratic Republicans; and then Democrats. Jefferson defeated the incumbent Adams in 1800.

11 Section 3—The Two-Party System in American History
American Parties: Four Major Eras The Era of the Democrats, Federalists disappear by 1816 Era of Good Feelings Split into factions National Republican party (Whigs) emerges Whigs fall apart Democrats split into North and South 1856 the Republicans emerge from previous Whigs and some Democrats.

12 Section 3—The Two-Party System in American History
American Parties: Four Major Eras The Era of the Republicans, Democrats held the “Solid South.” McKinley’s victory in 1896 solidified party Only interruptions were Cleveland and Wilson

13 Section 3—The Two-Party System in American History
American Parties: Four Major Eras The Return of the Democrats, Great Depression/Roosevelt Social Welfare programs/New Deal The Start of a New Era, Divided government

14 Section 4—The Minor Parties
Minor Parties in the United States Ideological Parties Socialist, Socialist Labor, Socialist Worker, and Communist. Libertarian Single Issue Parties Free Soil—opposed slavery American or Know Nothing Party—opposed Irish immigration. Right to Life Party—opposes abortion

15 Section 4—The Minor Parties
Minor Parties in the United States Economic Protest Parties Greenback Party Populist Party of the 1890s Splinter Parties Bull Moose Party of 1912 LaFollette’s Progressive Party States’ Rights (Dixiecrats) American Independent Party of George Wallace Green Party with Ralph Nader

16 Section 4—The Minor Parties
Why Minor Parties Are Important Anti Masonic Party had first convention in 1831. Spoiler role of Teddy Roosevelt, Ralph Nader and Ross Perot They highlight important issues Income tax, women’s rights, voting

17 Section 5—Party Organization
The Decentralized Nature of the Parties. The Role of the Presidency The Impact of Federalism Over 500,000 elective offices in America The Role of the Nominating Process

18 Section 5—Party Organization
National Party Machinery The National Convention The National Committee The National Chairperson The Congressional Campaign Committees

19 Section 5—Party Organization
State and Local Party Machinery The State Organization Local Organization Wards Precinct

20 Section 5—Party Organization
The Three Components of the Party The party organization-leaders, activists, contributors, hanger’s on The party in the electorate-loyal voters The party in government-officeholders

21 Section 5—Party Organization
The Future of the Major Parties Decline in party “identification.” Increase in split-ticket voting Open reforms have led to internal conflict and disorganization. Changes in technology Growth of single-issue organizations

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