Presentation on theme: "West and Central Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1 West and Central Africa World Geography Today4/15/2017West and Central AfricaPreviewSection 1: Natural EnvironmentsSection 2: History and CultureSection 3: The Region TodayChapter Wrap-UpChapter 22
2 Section 1: Natural Environments Read to DiscoverWhat are West and Central Africa’s main landforms and rivers?Which climates and biomes are found here?What are some of the region’s important resources?
3 Section 1: Natural Environments West and Central AfricaNatural ResourcesClimates and VegetationLandforms and RiversTropical timberGood soilsOil, particularly in NigeriaMinerals in the Democratic Republic of the CongoCacao in Côte d’IvoireCoconuts and peanutsPlains and low hillsSome highland areasBroad depressionsEl DjoufCongo RiverNiger RiverZonal climate, mostly tropicalWarm throughout the yearArid/semiarid to northTropical wet and dry to south
4 Section 1: Natural Environments Landforms and RiversPlains and low hills; a few highlandsBroad depressions—El Djouf (desert), Lake Chad, Congo BasinKey rivers—Niger and CongoCoastal plain, with few natural harbors and large sandbars
5 Section 1: Natural Environments Climates and BiomesAll within the tropics; zonal climate bands run east-westArid—Northern zone; Sahara; Sahel semiarid region; scattered trees, shrubs, grassesTropical wet and dry—South of Sahel; open grasslands; once home to many large animals (zebras, elephants, giraffes), now much of it is farmlandTropical humid—Near equator; dense rainforest; many birds, insects, primates
6 Section 1: Natural Environments Key ResourcesTropical timber, good soilsOil—Nigeria is Africa’s leading producerMinerals—Copper, diamonds, cobalt in Democratic Republic of the CongoCacao—World’s main sourceOther crops—Coffee, coconuts, peanuts
7 Section 2: History and Culture Read to DiscoverWhat are the main eras in the history of West and Central Africa?What are some features of this region’s cultures?
8 Section 2: History and Culture QuestionWhat are the important events and eras in the history of West and Central Africa?
9 Section 2: History and Culture Early HistoryGreat kingdoms, including Ghana and Mali, ruled the region.Tombouctou served as a trade and education center.European ContactExplorers reached area by late 1400s.Slave trade of 1500s to 1800s brought at least 10 million Africans to Americas.Colonial EraEuropean countries wanted African resources.Many Africans began to work for wages.Postcolonial EraAll of West and Central Africa was independent by 1976.Some countries enjoy modern technology but also face many challenges.
10 Section 2: History and Culture Historical ErasPrecolonial—This era saw the rise of great empires, including Ghana and Mali, along with smaller groups of forest peoples. European contact by explorers began in the late 1400s and changed focus with the slave trade.Colonial—European powers took control of the region, establishing plantations, mines, and coastal cities.Postcolonial—Ghana was the first to win independence in 1957; others followed. Colonialism created dependence on commodity exports and political and economic problems.
11 Section 2: History and Culture Cultural FeaturesGreat diversity—Reflecting African, Muslim, European influencesMost languages in Niger-Congo family; Arabic and European languages also usedMainly rural residents, but urban populations growing rapidlyReligions—Islam in the Sahel; Christians to the south; African spirit religionsLow literacy rates, high povertyStaple crops—Cassava, corn, yams, millet, sorghumSocieties based on extended families
12 Section 3: The Region Today Read to DiscoverHow economically developed are West and Central African countries?What major challenges do the countries face today?
13 Section 3: The Region Today QuestionTo what extent are West and Central African countries economically developed?
14 Section 3: The Region Today Economic Development of West and Central AfricaSubsistence Activities• Sahel grasslands used for herding• Many crops planted in tropical rain forest• Many crops planted in one fieldMarket Activities• Primary goods exported• Heavy dependence on a few main exports• Small amount of manufacturing• Plantation agriculture, ranching
15 Section 3: The Region Today Level of DevelopmentDeveloping countries—Poverty, low levels of education, shorter lifespansDual economies—For export market and local marketPlantation agriculture and ranches hurt subsistence farming and grazingDependence on export of a few key primary products
16 Section 3: The Region Today ChallengesEconomic developmentPopulation growth—Crowding, hungerPolitical problems—War and conflictEnvironmental destruction—Deforestation, species extinction, desertificationDisease—Malaria, HIV
17 Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding the Main Ideas 1. In which latitudes are the countries of West and Central Africa located? How does this affect the region’s climates?2. What is the environment of the Sahel like?3. How did Islam spread into West and Central Africa?4. In which part of West and Central Africa is Arabic spoken?5. How has rapid population growth affected cities in West and Central Africa?