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West and Central Africa

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Presentation on theme: "West and Central Africa"— Presentation transcript:

1 West and Central Africa
World Geography Today 4/15/2017 West and Central Africa Preview Section 1: Natural Environments Section 2: History and Culture Section 3: The Region Today Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter 22

2 Section 1: Natural Environments
Read to Discover What are West and Central Africa’s main landforms and rivers? Which climates and biomes are found here? What are some of the region’s important resources?

3 Section 1: Natural Environments
West and Central Africa Natural Resources Climates and Vegetation Landforms and Rivers Tropical timber Good soils Oil, particularly in Nigeria Minerals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Cacao in Côte d’Ivoire Coconuts and peanuts Plains and low hills Some highland areas Broad depressions El Djouf Congo River Niger River Zonal climate, mostly tropical Warm throughout the year Arid/semiarid to north Tropical wet and dry to south

4 Section 1: Natural Environments
Landforms and Rivers Plains and low hills; a few highlands Broad depressions—El Djouf (desert), Lake Chad, Congo Basin Key rivers—Niger and Congo Coastal plain, with few natural harbors and large sandbars

5 Section 1: Natural Environments
Climates and Biomes All within the tropics; zonal climate bands run east-west Arid—Northern zone; Sahara; Sahel semiarid region; scattered trees, shrubs, grasses Tropical wet and dry—South of Sahel; open grasslands; once home to many large animals (zebras, elephants, giraffes), now much of it is farmland Tropical humid—Near equator; dense rainforest; many birds, insects, primates

6 Section 1: Natural Environments
Key Resources Tropical timber, good soils Oil—Nigeria is Africa’s leading producer Minerals—Copper, diamonds, cobalt in Democratic Republic of the Congo Cacao—World’s main source Other crops—Coffee, coconuts, peanuts

7 Section 2: History and Culture
Read to Discover What are the main eras in the history of West and Central Africa? What are some features of this region’s cultures?

8 Section 2: History and Culture
Question What are the important events and eras in the history of West and Central Africa?

9 Section 2: History and Culture
Early History Great kingdoms, including Ghana and Mali, ruled the region. Tombouctou served as a trade and education center. European Contact Explorers reached area by late 1400s. Slave trade of 1500s to 1800s brought at least 10 million Africans to Americas. Colonial Era European countries wanted African resources. Many Africans began to work for wages. Postcolonial Era All of West and Central Africa was independent by 1976. Some countries enjoy modern technology but also face many challenges.

10 Section 2: History and Culture
Historical Eras Precolonial—This era saw the rise of great empires, including Ghana and Mali, along with smaller groups of forest peoples. European contact by explorers began in the late 1400s and changed focus with the slave trade. Colonial—European powers took control of the region, establishing plantations, mines, and coastal cities. Postcolonial—Ghana was the first to win independence in 1957; others followed. Colonialism created dependence on commodity exports and political and economic problems.

11 Section 2: History and Culture
Cultural Features Great diversity—Reflecting African, Muslim, European influences Most languages in Niger-Congo family; Arabic and European languages also used Mainly rural residents, but urban populations growing rapidly Religions—Islam in the Sahel; Christians to the south; African spirit religions Low literacy rates, high poverty Staple crops—Cassava, corn, yams, millet, sorghum Societies based on extended families

12 Section 3: The Region Today
Read to Discover How economically developed are West and Central African countries? What major challenges do the countries face today?

13 Section 3: The Region Today
Question To what extent are West and Central African countries economically developed?

14 Section 3: The Region Today
Economic Development of West and Central Africa Subsistence Activities • Sahel grasslands used for herding • Many crops planted in tropical rain forest • Many crops planted in one field Market Activities • Primary goods exported • Heavy dependence on a few main exports • Small amount of manufacturing • Plantation agriculture, ranching

15 Section 3: The Region Today
Level of Development Developing countries—Poverty, low levels of education, shorter lifespans Dual economies—For export market and local market Plantation agriculture and ranches hurt subsistence farming and grazing Dependence on export of a few key primary products

16 Section 3: The Region Today
Challenges Economic development Population growth—Crowding, hunger Political problems—War and conflict Environmental destruction—Deforestation, species extinction, desertification Disease—Malaria, HIV

17 Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding the Main Ideas
1. In which latitudes are the countries of West and Central Africa located? How does this affect the region’s climates? 2. What is the environment of the Sahel like? 3. How did Islam spread into West and Central Africa? 4. In which part of West and Central Africa is Arabic spoken? 5. How has rapid population growth affected cities in West and Central Africa?

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