Presentation on theme: "BELL WORK: Take out your homework so I can check it."— Presentation transcript:
1 BELL WORK: Take out your homework so I can check it. Turn in your Organ Trail Project (poster AND packet!!)Turn in your vocabulary project if you didn’t turn it in yesterday!!Get ready for your homework quiz!
2 CO: I will describe the interactions between the immune and integumentary systems. LO: I will write notes. I will draw and write how the immune system works.
3 Why do we have an immune system? Attack from outsideanimals must defend themselves against invaders (pathogens)virusesHIV, flu, cold, measles, chicken poxbacteriapneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis Lyme diseasefungiyeast (“Athlete’s foot”…)protistsamoeba, malariaAttack from insidecancers = abnormal body cellsMmmmm,What’s in your lunchbox?
9 Integumentary System: Functions ProtectionFirst line of defense againstBacteriaVirusesProtects underlying structures fromUltraviolet (UV) radiationDehydrationBody temperature regulationIf too hotDermal blood vessels dilateVessels carry more blood to surface so heat can escapeIf too coldDermal blood vessels constrictPrevents heat from escaping
10 Integumentary System: Functions Vitamin D productionNeeded for calcium absorptionSensationSensory receptors (nerves)ExcretionSmall amounts of waste products are lost through perspiration (sweat)
11 2nd line: Non-specific Responses bacteriaPatrolling cells & proteinsattack pathogens, but don’t “remember” for next timeleukocytesphagocytic white blood cellsmacrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cellsProteins that destroy cellsmacrophageyeast
12 2. Inflammatory response Damage to tissue triggers local non-specific inflammatory responserelease chemical signalscapillaries dilate, become more permeable (leaky)increases temperatureFever occurs when local inflammatory response is not enoughHigh body temperature helps defend body
13 3rd line: Acquired (active) Immunity Specific defense with memorylymphocytesB cellsT cellsantibodiesimmunoglobulinsResponds to…antigenscellular name tagsspecific pathogensspecific toxinsabnormal body cells (cancer)B cell
14 Lymphocytes B cells T cells mature in bone marrow humoral response system“humors” = body fluidsattack pathogens still circulating in blood & lymphproduce antibodiesT cellsmature in thymuscellular response systemattack invaded cellsTens of millions of different T cells are produced, each one specializing in the recognition of oen particar antigen.
15 Vaccinations Immune system exposed to harmless version of pathogen stimulates B cell system to produce antibodies to pathogen“active immunity”rapid response on future exposurecreates immunity without getting disease!Most successful against viruses
16 Passive immunity Obtaining antibodies from another individual maternal immunity (passed while in the womb or during breastfeeding)Injectioninjection of antibodiesshort-term immunity
17 What if the attacker gets past the B cells in the blood & actually infects (hides in) some of your cells?You need trained assassins to recognize & kill off these infected cells!Attack of the Killer T cells!TBut how do T cells know someone is hiding in there?
18 T cells Attack, learn & remember pathogens hiding in infected cells recognize antigen fragmentsalso defend against “non-self” body cellscancer & transplant cellsTypes of T cellshelper T cellsalerts rest of immune systemkiller (cytotoxic) T cellsattack infected body cellsmemory T cellslong term immunityT cell attacking cancer cell
19 HIV & AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus virus infects helper T cellshelper T cells don’t activate rest of immune system: killer T cells & B cellsalso destroys helper T cellsAIDS: Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndromedeath usually from “opportunistic” infectionspneumonia, cancersHIV infected T cell
20 Immune system malfunctions Auto-immune diseasesimmune system attacks own molecules & cellslupusantibodies against many molecules released by normal breakdown of cellsrheumatoid arthritisantibodies causing damage to cartilage & bonediabetesbeta-islet cells of pancreas attacked & destroyedmultiple sclerosisT cells attack myelin sheath of brain & spinal cord nervesAllergiesover-reaction to environmental antigensallergens = proteins on pollen, dust mites, in animal salivastimulates release of histamine
21 The rest of class… Create an Immune System Comic: Must have at least 4 boxes in your storyExplain ONE of the levels of defense in the immune systemUse “word bubbles” (like the ones shown) to explain what is happening