Regents Biology Proteins Function: –many, many functions _____________ –signals from one body system to another –insulin _____________ –muscle _____________ –protect against germs _____________ –help chemical reactions
Regents Biology Proteins Building block = amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – —N——N— H H H | —C— | C—OH || O ______________ ____________ 20 different ___________________ There’s 20 of us… like 20 different letters in an alphabet! Can make lots of different words
Regents Biology Amino acid chains Proteins –amino acids chained into a _____________ Each amino acid is different –some “like” water & ___________________ –some “fear” water & __________________ amino acid
Regents Biology pepsin 3-D protein structure collagen Proteins ______________ into _________________ –that’s what happens in the cell! Different shapes = _____________________ hemoglobin growth hormone
Regents Biology Its shape that matters! Proteins do their jobs, because of their ____________ Unfolding a protein _____________________ –wrong shape = can’t do its job –unfolding proteins = “____________________” ______________ folded unfolded “denatured” In Biology, it’s not the size, it’s the SHAPE that matters!
Regents Biology Chemical reactions of life Processes of life –building molecules ________________ –breaking down molecules ________________ ++
Regents Biology Nothing works without enzymes! How important are enzymes? –_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ building molecules –synthesis enzymes breaking down molecules –digestive enzymes –______________________________ “___________________” ++ enzyme We can ’ t live without enzymes!
Regents Biology Enzymes are proteins Each enzyme is the _______________ to a ___________________ –each enzyme needs to be the ________________________ for the job –enzymes speed up reactions “catalysts” –enzymes are named for the ___________ they help sucrase breaks down ___________ proteases breakdown proteins lipases breakdown _____________ _____________________ builds DNA Oh, I get it! They end in -ase
Regents Biology Enzymes ________________________ Enzymes are ______________________ by the reaction –used only temporarily –_______________ for the same reaction with other molecules –very little enzyme needed to help in many reactions enzyme substrateproduct active site
Regents Biology It’s shape that matters! __________________ –_______________ allows enzyme & substrate to fit –_______________________ _______________________
Enzyme vocabulary Enzyme –helper molecule Substrate –molecule that enzymes work on ___________________________ –enzyme & molecule __________________ _________________ –part of enzyme that substrate molecule ___________
Regents Biology More about Enzymes: What Affects Enzymes
Regents Biology Enzyme concentration Effect on rates of enzyme activity –as _________________ amount of enzyme = _____________ how fast the reaction happens more enzymes = more frequently they collide with substrate
Regents Biology Substrate concentration Effect on rates of enzyme activity –as _______________ amount of substrate = ________________ how fast the reaction happens more substrate = more frequently they collide with enzyme
Regents Biology Temperature Effect on rates of enzyme activity –_________________________ greatest number of collisions between enzyme & substrate human enzymes = –35°- 40°C (_____________________) –Raise temperature _____________________________________ –Lower temperature T° molecules move slower decrease collisions
Regents Biology Temperature temperature reaction rate What’s happening here?!
Regents Biology pH Effect on rates of enzyme activity –____________________________ depends on where in body pepsin (stomach) = pH 3 trypsin (small intestines) = pH 8