Introduction Kate Millet: Because of our social circumstances, male and female are really two different cultures and their life experiences are utterly different Sex: biological differences between males and females, such as differences in genitals, reproductive functioning, bone structure, and size Gender: the cultural and social classification of characteristics, attitudes, values and behaviours as appropriate for either females or males Gender role: the role that a person adopts or that is ascribed to her/him on the dimensions of masculinity and femininity. The concept of gender role incorporates the power relations between men and woman Gender role identity: how a person views herself or himself on the dimensions of masculinity and femininity Gender role socialization: The processes of enculturation whereby children and adults acquire, internalize and maintain the characteristics, attitudes, values and behaviours associated with femininity, masculinity or mixture of both
Introduction Gender role conflict: Where the gender role the individual either adopts or wishes to adopt is a variance with the gender role prescribed by their culture or reference group. different ideas between partners in dual career couples Sexism: external oppression on account of a person’s biological sex. Individual Sexism: any thoughts, feelings and actions that assume the superiority of one sex over the other. Institutional or organizational sexism: political, institutional and organizational structures that discriminate against, oppress and devalue a person on the grounds of sex Heterosexism: extends sexism to focus on individuals and organizations that assume the superiority of heterosexual thought, feelings and actions over homosexual or bisexual thoughts, feelings and actions.
THEORY Read p. 445-452 Biology and Gender Masculinity, femininity, androgyny and gender schema Woman and gender roles Men and gender roles
THERAPY Read p. 460 Ellen Piel Cook: Mental health professional recognize today that strong adhere to traditional sex-role standards can have negative consequences for men’s and women’s psychological functioning Where gender role issues are involved, it is possible to state therapeutic goals for both sexes and for each sex The general goals include helping individual clients use their strengths and potential, make appropriate choices, remedy poor skills and develop positive and flexible self-concept Learning to deal with demand/withdraw interaction pattern in marital conflict Handling numerous issues confronting dual career couples in a time of rapid technological and economic change
THERAPY Goals for feminist counselling: read box 17.3 p. 454 Therapeutic goals for men: read p. 455
THERAPY Therapeutic approaches: read p. 455-460 Making existing therapies more gender sensitive Gender relevant counselling and therapy competences Awareness of own assumptions, values and biases Understanding the worldview of the sex-different client Developing appropriate intervention strategies and techniques Feminist and Men’s Therapy 5 central principles of feminist therapy (read box 17.4; p. 458)
THERAPY Herbert Spencer: No one can be perfectly free until all are free; No one can be perfectly moral until all are moral; No one can be perfectly happy until all are happy