Isaiah –Isaiah 1-39: Judgment and hope Isaiah 6: God will destroy his people but leave a remnant.Isaiah 6: God will destroy his people but leave a remnant. Isaiah 11: God will give his remnant people a new king.Isaiah 11: God will give his remnant people a new king. –The King will be from David’s line (11:1) –The King would be filled with the Spirit (11:2) –The King who will rule the whole world (11:3-5)
The End of the Exile (Isaiah 40)The End of the Exile (Isaiah 40) –Comfort for God’s people (40:1-2) –The Voice in the desert (40:3-4) –God’s personal rule over his people (40:9-11)
The Servant of YahwehThe Servant of Yahweh –The Servant is God’s ruler who has God’s Spirit (42:1) –The Servant brings justice to the earth (Isaiah 42:2-4) –The Servant is Israel (Isaiah 44) –The Servant is an individual who restores Israel (Isaiah 49). –The Servant will be unattractive (Isaiah 52:12-53:3) –The Servant will beat the sins of others (Isaiah 53:4-10a) –The Servant will rise again (Isaiah 53:10b- end)
The implications of the Servant’s workThe implications of the Servant’s work –Joy (Isaiah 54) –An invitation (Isaiah 55) –A blessing to the nations (Isaiah 60:1-3) –The new Creation (Isaiah 65) –Judgement (Isaiah 65:24)
Jeremiah –Judgement and hope (16:1-14) Judgement against Israel (16:1-13)Judgement against Israel (16:1-13) Hope beyond judgement (16:14)Hope beyond judgement (16:14) –More promises beyond the exile (29:10-14) –A New Covenant (31:31-34)
The historical return –Ezra –Nehemiah –God’s promises fulfilled?
MOOREMOORE Exile as Judgement Read Jeremiah 7v1-15 Why are the people talking about the temple? (v4) –What do they have faith (or trust or confidence) in? –Is this a good or bad thing? Why? Where/what was Shiloh, and what did happen to it? –Why is this a relevant warning? Why is judgement coming?
God’s purpose renewed Having seen Israel and Judah taken off into exile, we might now be wondering whether or not God’s purpose for Israel would ever be fulfilled … The prophets who were sent by God at this crucial time bring news of a resolution to the problem. The Assyrian invasion and the fall of Samaria in 722 BC can be seen to be the immediate and local judgement of God on his rebellious people. In the Southern kingdom of Judah, the fate of the northern kingdom (also referred to as Samaria or Ephraim) was used as a warning and an example. According to Jeremiah 7:1-15, this judgement of God would come upon them because of their false confidence, leading them to think that Jerusalem and the temple would stand no matter what they did.
MOOREMOORE The Pattern of Restoration Work through the following passages What do they tell us about how God intends to act to save his people? –Jeremiah 31v8-14 –Isaiah 40v1-11 –Jeremiah 31v31-34 –Isaiah 11v1-12 –Isaiah 65v17-25 –Isaiah 2v1-4 How would you sum up the prophetic message of salvation?
God’s purpose renewed As they condemn the people for their unfaithfulness and disobedience, the prophets also speak about the restoration by God: God will: (a)re-establish his people after a great act of salvation, (b) renew his promises in a way that is richer than any Israel could have expected. The great difference from the past will be that none of the weaknesses of the past will be present; sin and its effects will be eradicated at every level. As a result of this renewal process, Gentiles will be drawn in to share the blessigns promised to Israel.
God’s purpose renewed five aspects to the prophets’ picture of God’s renewal Isaiah 40:1-11 ‘a new Exodus’ Elements of the original Exodus taken up by the prophets: Release from captivity Passage through the sea A path through the desert A rescuer (Suffering Servant). Jeremiah 31:31-34 ‘A new covenant’ God will remain FAITHFUL to the COVENANT he made with Abraham: The covenant reaffirmed; The covenant renewed. Isaiah 11:1-12 ‘a new King’ Because of God’s great promises to David: Israel’s salvation is bound up with the coming of this new king. Immanuel = “God with us”, which is a guarantee of God’s presence & of the covenant. Isaiah 65:17-25 ‘a new creation’ God will bless his PEOPLE and his LAND he has prepared for them as they live under his RULE. Only those redeemed by God from the consequences of sin will be able to dwell in the new creation.
God’s purpose renewed New life for the nations! An important part of the promise of Genesis 12:1-3 was the assurance that God’s blessing would benefit ‘all peoples on earth’. The prophets affirm that: a)The Servant who brings back Israel will also be a light for the Gentiles b)People will be drawn by God’s presence and his blessing of his people c)People will be drawn in to learn about God and follow him d)Even though God will judge the nations, people from them will share in the salvation promised to the renewed Israel. five aspects to the prophets’ picture of God’s renewal
MOOREMOORE After the Babylonian Exile Read Ezra 1v1-4, 3v1-10-13 Have the hopes for the renewal and restoration been fulfilled? –Why/why not?
God’s purpose renewed In 538BC the Persians, under the leadership of Cyrus, conquered Babylon and the exiles were allowed to return to Jerusalem and to rebuild the temple (Ezra 1 – 3). Two of the prophets who were around to encourage this process, in the face of opposition were Haggai & Zechariah. Ezra sought to re-establish the community of God’s people.Nehemiah encouraged the people to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem. However, it is clear that such fulfilment of prophecy that does occur at this time is only a pale shadow of the expectation.
God’s purpose renewed Martin Luther once said: “All the prophets speak of the same thing. They all have the same concern: to see the future Christ or his future kingdom.” Martin Luther once said: “All the prophets speak of the same thing. They all have the same concern: to see the future Christ or his future kingdom.”
God’s purpose renewed In summary terms, the Old Testament reveals the plan of God to reverse the effects of humanity’s rebellion and bring people together under his personal rule to experience the blessing of that rule.
God’s purpose renewed Graeme Goldsworthy has argued that the theme of the Bible as a whole is the Kingdom of God, defined as: God’s people In God’s place Under God’s rule.