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RADIATA- animals with radial symmetry PHYLUM CNIDARIA Cnidarians are animals with stinging tentacles.

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Presentation on theme: "RADIATA- animals with radial symmetry PHYLUM CNIDARIA Cnidarians are animals with stinging tentacles."— Presentation transcript:


2 RADIATA- animals with radial symmetry

3 PHYLUM CNIDARIA Cnidarians are animals with stinging tentacles

4 BODY STRUCTURE Radial symmetry No organ systems Nerve net (primitive nervous system) –Whole body responds no matter what was stimulated Outer membrane, inner membrane and jelly middle called mesoglea –Oxygen diffuses right into its body, CO2 diffuses out

5 BODY STRUCTURE Have sensory organs –Statocysts…balance organ –Box jellies have 4 pairs of eyes

6 See Fig 7.3 pg 126 Hydra

7 BODY STRUCTURE Primitive muscle cells- weak swimmers Incomplete digestive tract- one opening for waste and food Lack all other systems and no body cavity Do have hormones to communicate between cells

8 REPRODUCTION Some Cnidarians have an alternation of generations, vary as to dominant stage Medusa is the sexual body plan Polyp is the asexual body plan Larvae is called planula

9 See Fig 7.2 pg 125

10 FEEDING Cnidoblasts / nematocysts – stinging cells –Used in defense and to paralyze prey –After being triggered these cells cannot be re- used so they must be regenerated Planktonic version are carnivorous, sessile version are filter feeders Food is digested in the cavity

11 Cnidaria Taxonomy Class Hydrozoa - Siphonophores Class Anthozoa – Coral Class Cubozoa - Box Jellies Class Scyphazoa - Jellyfish

12 Class Hydrazoa Portugeuse Man O War, Hydra Dominant phase is polyp Found as colonial animals or individuals Individuals of a colony cannot exist on their own

13 Class Hydrazoa Different polyps have different roles –Feeding polyps –Reproductive polyps –Special tentacle polyps –Float polyps

14 Class Anthazoa Sea Anemones –Live as a polyp attached to the substrate Coral –Colonial polyps with a limestone exoskeleton –Polyps share a stomach –Feed on plankton and have symbiotic algae that live in their tissue and give them nutrition –Build reefs using Ca in the water and CO2 from their algae


16 See Fig. 7.19 pg 135 An Anthozoan/Sea Anemone See Figs 7.24, 7.26 pg 138-39 A Zoantharian Coral

17 Class Scyphazoa Spend most of their life as umbrella shaped medusa Size range from cms to meters across Typical NJ jellies- moon, purple and lion’s mane jellyfish Population explosions of 100s or 1000s of these animals is currently a concern Major predators include tuna, swordfish, moonfish, triggerfish and certain kinds of sea turtles

18 Aurelia

19 Moon jellyfish, Aurelia Fig 7.16, 17 pg 134

20 Pelagia

21 Cyanea

22 Class Cubazoa More square shaped than regular jellies Powerful stings that can kill a human Good swimmers


24 Ecology Important predators Corals are most diverse places in the ocean Important food source for some animals Huge blooms are occurring recently because of warming ocean temperatures (??) or because of overfishing (???)

25 Treatment of Stings minimize the number of nematocysts discharging into the skin remove the tentacles that adhere to the skin by using sand, clothing, towels, seaweed meat tenderizer, sugar, vinegar, plant juices and sodium bicarbonate have all been used with varying degrees of success. Do not use : Methylated spirits, picric acid and human urine


27 Phylum Ctenophora Common name….comb jellies Unique Characteristics –Comb plates (not tentacles) –Medusa stage only –Luminescence common –Position of paired tentacles changes symmetry to biradial

28 Ecology Form a large percent of the plankton Can regenerate depending on damage Feed on plankton including: larvae, worms, jellyfish, other comb jellies, and sometimes small fish. Same predators as jelly group Image ID: nur01002, National Undersearch Research Program (NURP) Collection Credit: OAR/National Undersea Research Program (NURP)

29 Difference From Cnidaria –No alternation of generations (medusa only) –No nematocysts have sticky cells instead –Biradial symmetry, two tentacles –Combs not tentacles –Complete digestive system

30 Similarities –Nerve net –Lack of organ systems –Similar role in marine oceans Comparison Ctenophora to Cnidaria

31 Taxonomy Phylum Ctenophora


33 CtenophoreCtenophore See Fig 7.28 pg 140 Ctenophoran Comb Jelly

34 Fig 7.28 pg 140 Ctenophore Comb Jelly

35 Fig. 7.28 See Fig 7.28 pg 140 Ctenophoran Comb Jelly See Fig 7.28 pg 141 Ctenophoran Comb Jelly

36 Table 9.3

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