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Pertussis and Pertussis Vaccine Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine- Preventable Diseases National Immunization Program Centers for Disease Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Pertussis and Pertussis Vaccine Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine- Preventable Diseases National Immunization Program Centers for Disease Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pertussis and Pertussis Vaccine Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine- Preventable Diseases National Immunization Program Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Revised August 2002

2 Pertussis Highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis Outbreaks first described in 16th century Bordetella pertussis isolated in 1906 Estimated >300,000 deaths annually worldwide

3 Bordetella pertussis Fastidious gram negative bacteria Antigenic and biologically active components: – pertussis toxin (PT) – filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) – agglutinogens – adenylate cyclase – pertactin – tracheal cytotoxin

4 Pertussis Pathogenesis Attachment to cilia of ciliated epithelial cells in respiratory tract Pertussis antigens allow evasion of host defenses (lymphocytosis but impaired chemotaxis) Local tissue damage in respiratory tract Systemic disease may be toxin mediated

5 Pertussis Clinical Features Incubation period 5-10 days (up to 21 days) Insidious onset, similar to minor upper respiratory infection with nonspecific cough Fever usually minimal throughout course

6 Pertussis Clinical Features Catarrhal stage1-2 weeks Paroxysmal cough stage1-6 weeks ConvalescenceWeeks to months

7 Pertussis in Adults Accounts for up to 7% of cough illnesses per year Disease often milder than in infants and children Adults often source of infection for children

8 Pertussis Complications* Condition Pneumonia Seizures Encephalopathy Death Hospitalization Percent reported 5.2 0.8 0.1 0.2 20 *Cases reported to CDC 1997-2000 (N=28,187)

9 Pertussis Complications by Age *Cases reported to CDC 1997-2000 (N=28,187)

10 Pertussis Epidemiology ReservoirHuman Adolescents and adults TransmissionRespiratory droplets Airborne rare Communicability Maximum in catarrhal stage Secondary attack rate up to 90%

11 Pertussis – United States, 1940-2001* *2001 provisional data

12 Pertussis – United States, 1980-2001* *2001 provisional data

13 Pertussis – United States, 1985-2000 Age Distribution of Reported Cases

14 Whole Cell Pertussis Vaccine Developed in mid-1930s and combined as DTP in mid-1940s 70%-90% efficacy after 3 doses Protection for 5-10 years Local adverse reactions common

15 Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Purified "subunit" vaccines Intended to reduce adverse reactions Licensed for fourth and fifth doses in 1991 Licensed for full series in 1996

16 Composition* of Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Product DAPTACEL Infanrix Tripedia PT 10 25 23 PERT 3 8 -- FHA 5 25 23 *mcg per dose FIM 5 --

17 DTaP Clinical Trials Product Infanrix Tripedia DAPTACEL Location Italy Germany Sweden VE (95% CI) 84% (76-89) 80% (59-90) 85% (80-89)

18 Routine DTaP Primary Vaccination Schedule Dose Primary 1 Primary 2 Primary 3 Primary 4 Age 2 months 4 months 6 months 15-18 months Interval --- 4 wks 6 mos

19 DTaP Fourth Dose Recommended at 15-18 months May be given at 12 months of age if: – child is 12 months of age, and – 6 months since DTaP3, and – unlikely to return at 15-18 months

20 School Entry (fifth) Dose Fifth dose recommended when 4th dose given before age 4 years Only Tripedia currently licensed for 5th dose after DTaP series

21 Interchangeability of Different Brands of DTaP Vaccine No efficacy or safety data available for "mix-and-match" DTaP schedules Series should be completed with same brand of vaccine Use different brand of DTaP if necessary

22 DTaP-Hib Combination Vaccine Do not use for primary immuni- zation at 2, 4, or 6 months of age May be used as the booster dose of the Hib series at >12 months of age following any Hib vaccine* *booster dose should follow prior dose by >2 months

23 Pertussis Vaccine Use in Children with Underlying Neurologic Disorders Underlying Condition Prior seizure Suspected neurologic disorder Neurologic event between doses Stable/resolved neurologic condition Recommendation Delay and assess* Vaccinate *vaccinate after treatment initiated and condition stabilized

24 Pertussis Vaccination of Children Who Have Recovered From Pertussis If documented disease, do not need additional doses of pertussis vaccine Satisfactory documentation of disease: –recovery of B. pertussis on culture, OR –typical symptoms and clinical course when epidemiologically linked to a culture- proven case

25 Pertussis Vaccine in Adults No pertussis vaccine licensed for use in adults in the United States Acellular pertussis vaccine safe and immunogenic in adults Impact on disease or transmission unknown Not routinely recommended at this time

26 DTaP Adverse Reactions Local reactions Low grade fever More severe adverse reactions uncommon Local reactions more common following 4 th and 5 th doses

27 Adverse Reactions Following the 4th and 5th DTaP Dose Local adverse reactions and fever increased with 4th and 5th doses of DTaP Reports of swelling of entire limb Extensive swelling after 4th dose NOT a contraindication to 5th dose

28 Adverse Events Reported Following 1 st and 4 th DTaP

29 DTaP Contraindications Serious allergic reaction to component or following prior dose Encephalopathy occurring within 7 days after vaccination not due to another identifiable cause

30 DTaP Precautions (Warnings)* Moderate or severe acute illness Temperature >105 F (40.5 C) or higher within 48 hours with no other identifiable cause Collapse or shock-like state (hypotonic- hyporesponsive episode) within 48 hours Persistent, inconsolable crying lasting >3 hours, occurring within 48 hours Convulsions with or without fever occurring within 3 days *may consider use in outbreaks

31 DTaP Substitution DTaP should NOT be substituted in children who have a valid contraindication to whole cell pertussis vaccine DT should be used to complete the series

32 National Immunization Program Hotline800.232.2522

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