Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Urinary System An overview.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Urinary System An overview."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urinary System An overview

2 Functions of the Urinary System

3 Functions of the Urinary System
Produces, excretes urine Essential for homeostasis Keeps volume of bodily fluids constant Keeps levels of essential chemicals constant Electrolytes, water, acid/base balance “Clears” (cleans) blood of waste products produced by cellular metabolism (e.g. nitrogenous wastes) Uremia- toxic buildup of metabolic wastes Blood pressure regulation

4 Characteristics of Urine
Normal Characteristics Color: Transparent yellow, amber, straw-colored Compounds Mineral ions (Na+, Cl-, K+) Nitrogenous wastes (ammonia, creatinine, urea, uric acid) Suspended solids (sediment, bacteria, blood cells, casts) Urine pigments Odor Slight odor pH Specific gravity

5 Structures of the urinary system (Macroscopic)

6 Major structures of the urinary system
Kidney Retroperitoneal Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra

7 Urinary Bladder Accumulates, stores urine
Stretchable epithelium, w/ smooth muscle (detrusor) Internal urinary sphincter Involuntary, circular muscle Keeps ureter closed Can hold up to 1 liter of urine Stretch receptors signal need to void (micturate) when 20% of bladder capacity reached

8 Urethra Single, muscular tube
Controlled by external urethral sphincter Voluntary Longer in males More prone to infection in females

9 Voiding Urination = micturition
Innervated by reflex arc; voluntary control gained as one ages Incontinence – loss of voluntary control Anuria – lack of urine production Urinary retention – failure to expel urine Oliguria – decreased urine production Polyuria – excessive urine production

10 The Kidney Renal cortex – Outer “bark” Renal medulla – Inner
Renal pyramids Triangular divisions Renal columns – Extension of cortex Divide pyramids Renal papilla Narrow, innermost point of a pyramid Renal pelvis Expanded end of upper end of ureter Calyx Division of renal pelvis


12 Microscopic Structure of the Kidney

13 Microscopic Structure of the Kidney

14 Functional Unit: Nephron
> 1 million in a kidney Can be cortical (most) or juxtamedullary “Tiny funnel” with a very long stem Highly convoluted (many bends) 2 principal components: Renal corpuscle Renal tubule

15 Renal corpuscle components
Bowman’s capsule Cup/sac-like-shaped top of a nephron Glomerulus Ball of capillaries, lined with podocytes Found in Bowman’s capsule Afferent, efferent arterioles

16 Renal Tubule Composed of: Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Loop of Henle (longer in Juxtamedullary) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Collecting tubule

17 Formation of Urine

18 Formation of Urine: Overview
Filtration Secretion Reabsorption All occur within the functional unit of the kidney, the nephron

19 Filtration Of water, dissolved substances out of blood into Bowman’s capsule Occurs in “renal corpuscles” Contains larger afferent, smaller efferent arterioles Creates high pressure in glomerulus Filters blood across fenestrated capillaries, lined w/ podocytes Hold in proteins, cells Lose water, ions = ultrafiltration

20 Glomerular Filtration Rate
120 ml/minute = 180 liters/day! Must maintain a minimum blood pressure for kidneys to filter Hemorrhage, etc., can cause kidney function (and urine output) to cease

21 180 L of urine a day? No… Luckily, most of the fluid that leaves blood during filtration returns to the blood during reabsorption…

22 Reabsorption Movement of substances out of renal tubules into the blood (into peritubular capillaries) Water Glucose Other nutrients Sodium, other ions Begins in proximal convoluted tubule, continues in loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule Reabsorb ~178 L/day (97-98% of water)

23 Mechanism? Several… Active transport Passive Transport
Active transport of sodium ions from tubule into interstitial fluid Passive Transport Creates high concentration of sodium, which diffuses into bloodstream Sodium (Na+) in blood attracts negative ions (Cl-, (PO4)3-), which diffuse into blood

24 Another Mechanism? Osmosis! (Flow of water from High to Low)
Attracted to blood due to ion flow

25 Another, another Mechanism?
Facilitated Diffusion Amino acids Glucose Cotransported/symported with sodium Almost all glucose reabsorbed (340 mg/min) Exceptions exist! Diabetes mellitus – too much sugar in bloodstream, exceeds ability of kidney tubule cells to reabsorb (not enough Na+ to cotransport) glycosuria (glucose in blood) Water is lost along with glucose transport… most people with diabetes mellitus urinate excessively!

26 Loop of Henle Descending loop:
Reabsorbs water (20%), large ions and molecules Ascending loop: Active transport of Na, Cl ions

27 Water reabsorption 90% passive thru osmosis in PCT, descending Loop of Henle, DCT 10% occurs in last parts of DCT, collecting ducts

28 Secretion Substances move into urine in distal, collecting tubules from blood in capillaries around tubules “Reabsorption in reverse” Urea, H+, K+ ions, ammonia, drugs (Bold = active transport; non-bold = diffusion)

29 Regulation of Urine Formation

30 Regulation Regulated by hormones
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – increases water reabsorption from collecting duct into bloodstream Angiotensin II – constricts efferent, systemic arterioles – alters filtration rate, increases pressures Aldosterone – Produced by adrenal cortex; retains sodium, excretes potassium – raises blood pressure by incr. water absorption in DCT, Collecting duct Affected by other substances Diuretic (causes great outflow of urine) Caffeine –decreases Na+ absorption, causing diuresis Lasix – works on Loop of Henle, producing massive diuresis

31 Concentration Glomerulus “squeezes” blood out into the Bowman’s capsule Fenestrated inner lining Podocytes, w/ small holes, trap small proteins Filtrate runs across the capsule into the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) PCT lined with BV’s that reabsorb nutrients from it, excrete wastes into it. PCT passes filtrate downward through loop of Henle, then back up Juxtamedullary nephrons extend deep into the medulla, have much longer loops of Henle Tubular Reabsorption – Urine in tubules must be reabsorbed to prevent dehydration Solutes are actively and passively reabsorbed (glucose, aa’s, sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphate, bicarbonate)

Download ppt "Urinary System An overview."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google