Presentation on theme: "WORD STRESS PATTERNS IN PROSODIC PHONOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:
1 WORD STRESS PATTERNS IN PROSODIC PHONOLOGY Charlotte Stice
2 What is prosody?Prosody consists of distinctive variations of stress, tone, and timing in spoken languageIn linguistics, prosody refers to intonation and vocal stress in speech
3 What is stress?Stress is a term that we apply to words in isolation which have more than one syllable. It refers to the property that certain syllables carry which make them stand out from the rest of the word. Stressed syllables are made with more effort than unstressed ones; the muscles in the lungs expel air more aggressively than for unstressed syllables.
4 THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS TO MARK STRESS IN A WORD Stress can be marked by an acute accent ( ́ )Stress can also be noted by a high mark in front of the stressed syllableIn certain textbooks, stress is marked with large and small circles° º °amazing
5 More ways to mark stress Use a 1 for primary stress and a 2 for secondary stressFundamental introductory
6 HOW STRESS CAN POSE PROBLEMS FOR THE ELL In many languages, word stress follows a set pattern (ie: in French the stress is almost always on the final syllable—aller, avertir, absolument.How do you explain to an ELL the difference between the pronunciation of the word “record” in the following examples:Please keep a récord of all of your work.Please recórd your voice on the tape.
7 astónish collápse amáze exit exíst impróve imágine resíst surpríse Consider the following English verbs. Those in column A have stress on the next-to-last syllable, whereas the verbs in column B and C have their last syllable stressed.A B Castónish collápse amázeexit exíst impróveimágine resíst surprísecáncel revólt combíneelícit adópt recállpráctice insíst atóne
8 Transcribe the words under A, B and C phonetically A B Cəstαnıš kəlæps əmezεksət εgzıst impruvımæĵən rəzεnt sərprajzkænsəl rəvolt kəmbajnəlısət ədαpt rəkαlpræctəs ınsıst ətonWhat is the difference between the final syllables in columns A and B?
9 What kind of rule would predict where stess occurs in the verbs in columns A and B? RULE: In words that end with more than one consonant, the stress falls on the second syllable.
10 In the verbs in column C, stress also occurs on the final syllable In the verbs in column C, stress also occurs on the final syllable. What must you add to the rule to account for this fact?Hint: look at the vowelsRule: If the second syllable of a verb contains a long vowel or dipthong, the second syllable is stressed.
11 HOW TO DETERMINE WHERE STRESS LIES Unfortunately, English has a very complex set of procedures that determine stress. However, since nearly all English speakers agree on where stress should be placed in individual words, there is some method to our madness.Check out the following websites: