2 Facts of the CasePolice arrest Ernesto Miranda after the victim identifies him in lineupPolice interrogate Miranda for two hours
3 Facts of the Case Miranda confesses to charges of rape and kidnapping. At trial, the prosecutor uses confession to obtain conviction.Miranda is sentenced to yrs on each count.
4 Question Before CourtWhat is the role of the police in protecting the rights of the accused, as guaranteed by the Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the Constitution?
5 5th & 6th AmendmentsFifth Amendment: no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself "Sixth Amendment: "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to have the assistance of counsel for his defense."
6 Legal PrecedentsFifth Amendment protects individuals from forced confessions. (Brown v Mississippi, 1936)Persons accused of felonies have a fundamental right to an attorney (Gideon v Wainwright, 1963)When an accused person is denied the right to consult with his attorney, his/her Sixth Amendment right to counsel is violated (Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964).
7 Ruling 5-4 ruling in favor of Miranda Police must ensure that defendants are aware of their rights before they are interrogated in custody. They have the right to remain silentAnything they say may be used against them in courtThey have the right to an attorney, either retained by them or appointed by the courtThey may waive these rights, but they retain the right to ask for an attorney any time during the interrogationDissenting opinion: Written by Justice Harlan who argued that the new rules did not protect suspects from police brutality.Do you think the Miranda ruling is clear? Is there anything that may be confusing or may lead to future legal questions? What is meant by “in custody?” How about “interrogation”?
8 How clear is Miranda? Review three case scenarios… Have kids get into groups of 3-4 to review cases and identify main arguments for prosecution and defense. Discuss results.
9 What does custody mean?Custody means a reasonable person believes they are not free to leave.Miranda ONLY applies when a person is in custody.
10 When does Miranda not apply? Physical evidence: fingerprints, DNA, handwriting samples, etc.CorporationsWhen a defendant takes the stand in his own defenseImmunity (not being prosecuted in exchange for testimony)If statute of limits has expired
11 Exceptions to Miranda Traffic violations When the police are preserving public safetySpontaneous remarksRoutine booking questionsUndercover plain clothes officers in jailMiranda—life after the caseUpcoming ruling on Miranda case in Florida