2 Thinking MapsThere are eight thinking processes that the brain performs when answering questions.Each thinking process translates into a thinking map.Cognitive indicators, or signal words, are located within a text or question and tells the reader which thought process is being utilized or tested.
3 Color Coding for Thinking Maps Circle Map- orangeTree Map- greenBubble Map- pinkFlow Map- blueDouble Bubble Map- purpleMulti-Flow Map- redBridge Map- brownBrace Map- black
4 Defining in Context AKA circle map The map is used to tell what something means.Cognitive indicators: context, context clues, list, define, tell, everything you know, brainstorm, identify, relate prior knowledge, tell, about, explore the meaning, discuss, means
5 Classifying AKA tree map The map categorizes information. Cognitive indicators: classify, sort, group, categorize, give sufficient and related details, types of, kinds of, list and elaborate, taxonomy, which, what
6 Describing AKA Bubble Map Used to describe a noun with adjectives Cognitive indicators: describe, use vivid language, observe using the 5 senses, describe feelings, attributes, characteristics, properties, adjectives, qualitiesAdj.Adj.Adj.NounAdj.Adj.Adj.Adj.Adj.
7 Sequence AKA flow map Used to put things in order Cognitive indicators: sequence, put in order, order, recount, retell, what happens next, cycles, patterns, processes, change, beginning, end
8 Compare and Contrast AKA double bubble map This map gives similarities and differences between two nouns.Cognitive indicators: compare/contrast, discuss similarities/differences, distinguish between, differentiate, alike, in common, both, share, same,#1#2
9 Cause and Effect AKA multi-flow map Used to explain what caused and event and/or the effects of that event.Cognitive indicators: causes and effects, discuss consequences, what would happen if, predict, change, identify motives, why, results, outcomes, benefits, because, reason, impact of, influenceEvent
10 Seeing Analogies AKA bridge map Used to show relationships Cognitive indicators: identify the common relationship, guess the rule, interpret symbols, simile, metaphor, allegory, ratiorelatingfactoras
11 Part to Whole Relationships AKA brace mapUsed to show concepts and their partsCognitive indicators: parts of, take apart, show structure, physical components, anatomy, types of, kinds of, label, plus, one, has
12 Patterns of Organization All writers brainstorm before writing.We want our writing to be logical and organized.There are several ways we can organize our writing. We will focus on:Compare and ContrastCause and EffectProblem/ SolutionDescription/ ListThese organizational patterns can be determined by finding cognitive indicators within the text.
13 Author’s PurposeAuthor’s purpose is more than to explain, to inform, to entertain, to persuade, etc.The author’s purpose should be more specific and address the complete reason for writing the piece.Hint: This is more similar to the P in PAC we’ve been using to analyze our writing prompts.
14 Steps for Using Thinking Maps to Visualize Multiple Choice Questions Find the signal word in the question stem.Identify the thinking process and thinking map.Draw the thinking map.Set up the map using information from the question stem and the answer choices.Identify the source within the frame of reference.Search the text for evidence.Include textual evidence in the frame of reference.Evaluate the answer choices and the evidence.