Today’s Bell Work Answer questions 1-2 under “Postwar Europe” on page 697 of Creating America. Answers: 1. Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia. 2. Eastern Europe
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Today’s Bell Work 25% of us no longer do this. What? Word of the Day No Word
Today’s Bell Work 25% of us no longer do this. What? Answer: read books Word of the Day No Word
Causes and Outcomes of WWI There are four MAIN reasons for WWI: M ilitarism – The build up of a country’s military in preparation for war A lliances – Defense agreements amongst countries/nations I mperialism – stronger countries exerting political and economical power over a weaker nation. N ationalism – Loyalty and devotion to one’s nation
Causes and Outcomes of WWI Small Conflict Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir of Austria-Hungary was visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. Bosnia was imperialized by Austria-Hungary and many Bosnians resented this because it was their nation. The Archduke was assassinated by a Bosnian nationalist name Gavrilo Princip He was acting out what many wanted because the weaker country, Bosnia, did not want Austria-Hungary in their country. What would follow was set up by prearranged alliances that were put into motion.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI Causes of WWI Austria-Hungary accused Serbia of the assassination and threatened war. Serbia had an alliance with Russia who threatened to mobilize Austria- Hungary if they attacked Serbia. Austria-Hungary had an alliance with Germany who threatened to attack Germany sliced through Belgium to attack France who had an alliance with Russia. Belgium had an alliance with Britain so Britain mobilized against Germany.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI Assassination of Archduke of A-H Threatened War on Serbia Serbia is Blamed for the assassination Ordered to mobilize against A-H because of its alliance with Serbia Germany was as allied with A-H so they it declared war on Russia Declared war on Russia’s Ally France Since Germany went through Belgium to fight France G. Britain Declared war against Germany What started as a small conflict… …became a huge war! Central Powers Allied Powers Neutral Powers
Causes and Outcomes of WWI The war would be called the Great War or WWI The war pitted the Central Powers against the Allied Powers. Central Powers included Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Allied Powers included France, Britain and Russia. In time there would be 21 other nations, Italy and the U.S. The U.S. will not enter until the last year of the four year war.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI Trench Warfare Germany’s attacks and the Allied counter attacks created a stalemate, or a deadlock in fighting. Both sides dug mazes of trenches in the ground. Soldiers slept, washed, and ate mud. In trench warfare the battle could take months. Soldiers had to endure bombing and charges across “No Man’s Land.” “No Man’s Land” was the area between each armies trenches or front. It was often flat and barren which made soldiers easy targets.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI German U-Boats As neutral nation the U.S. claimed the right to trade with either side of the war. Britain and Germany were blockading each others’ ports. Germany blockaded the ports with u-boats, submarines, and attacked any boat entering or leaving Britain. Germans were aloud to search and seize illegal goods but could not attack. This caused international conflict when neutral ships were being attacked and civilians killed.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI Sinking of the Lusitania Germany warned neutral ships from entering the blockade zones. President Woodrow Wilson ignored those warning and vowed to make Germany responsible for American ships and citizens. On May 17, 1915 the Lusitania, a British passenger ship, killing 1,200 people, including 128 Americans. Germany could not risk allowing the U.S. to enter the war against them so they agreed to stop attacking without warning. Americans still did not want part in the “Great War.”
Causes and Outcomes of WWI The Zimmerman Telegram Authur Zimmerman sent a secret note to the German minister in Mexico. This letter urged Mexico to attack the U.S. if The U.S would declare war on Germany. Germany vowed to give back their “lost provinces” in the southwest. Americans were outraged at German for plunging them into a war they wanted no part in.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI Russian Revolution For hundreds of year czars, Russian Emperors, ruled with absolute power. With the fall of the czar President Wilson could support the Russians and the allied cause. Woodrow Wilson went before Congress and asked for declaration of war on April 2, 1917. The United States entered the war to make the world safe for democracy.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI U.S. Enters WWI Germany risked that the United States would enter WWI, but thought they could win before U.S. acted. On the European Front the soldiers were tired from fighting in trenches. In the beginning of 1918 America had less than 300,000 troops. Russia has a revolution and the Bolsheviks create an alliance with Germany. This allowed Germany to concentrate all of of its forces towards Paris, France to end the war.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI In response the U.S. sends more than 2,000,000 troops to Europe by the end of 1918. These troops were known as the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). Most of the AEF stayed separate from the Allied Forces. The AEF got to the war late but just in time to help out the exhausted allied forces. The U.S. and the Allied Forces win the war as they defeated Germany in France.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI World War I Ends An armistice, an agreement to stop fighting, was achieved on the 11 hour of the 11 day of the 11 month in the year of 1919. The costs of WWI were staggering as more than 20,000,000 men, on both sides were killed. France was in ruins, millions of Germans were starved and many children were orphaned and homeless. The U.S. was not touched and lost the least amount of men while spending the least amount of money.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI Treaty of Paris President Woodrow Wilson is greeted in Paris as a hero of Democracy. President Wilson wants to achieve peace without victory as he wants to avoid another world war. His proposal is known as the Fourteen Points which was his plan to keep the world out of another war. Europeans want reparations to punish Germany for its actions in the war. Many nations were invited to the peace talks in France, but Germany was not.
Causes and Outcomes of WWI The Big Four, U.S., Britain, France and Italy, decided the key issues. Germany was forced to take blame for the war, and pay $300,000,000,000 in reparations. Germany’s military was limited to defense purposes, colonies were given to Britain and France. The Treaty of Versailles destroyed Germany until WWII. American is now known as a world power.