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Binary Trees, Binary Search Trees CMPS 2133 Spring 2008

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 2 Trees Linear access time of linked lists is prohibitive Does there exist any simple data structure for which the running time of most operations (search, insert, delete) is O(log N)?

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 3 Trees A tree is a collection of nodes The collection can be empty (recursive definition) If not empty, a tree consists of a distinguished node r (the root), and zero or more nonempty subtrees T 1, T 2,...., T k, each of whose roots are connected by a directed edge from r

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 4 Some Terminologies Child and parent Every node except the root has one parent A node can have an arbitrary number of children Leaves Nodes with no children Sibling nodes with same parent

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 5 Some Terminologies Path Length number of edges on the path Depth of a node length of the unique path from the root to that node The depth of a tree is equal to the depth of the deepest leaf Height of a node length of the longest path from that node to a leaf all leaves are at height 0 The height of a tree is equal to the height of the root Ancestor and descendant Proper ancestor and proper descendant

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 6 Example: UNIX Directory

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 7 Binary Trees A tree in which no node can have more than two children The depth of an “average” binary tree is considerably smaller than N, eventhough in the worst case, the depth can be as large as N – 1.

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 8 Example: Expression Trees Leaves are operands (constants or variables) The other nodes (internal nodes) contain operators Will not be a binary tree if some operators are not binary

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 9 Tree traversal Used to print out the data in a tree in a certain order Pre-order traversal Print the data at the root Recursively print out all data in the left subtree Recursively print out all data in the right subtree

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 10 Preorder, Postorder and Inorder Preorder traversal node, left, right prefix expression ++a*bc*+*defg

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 11 Preorder, Postorder and Inorder Postorder traversal left, right, node postfix expression abc*+de*f+g*+ Inorder traversal left, node, right. infix expression a+b*c+d*e+f*g

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 12 Preorder

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 13 Postorder

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 14 Preorder, Postorder and Inorder

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 15 Binary Trees Possible operations on the Binary Tree ADT parent left_child, right_child sibling root, etc Implementation Because a binary tree has at most two children, we can keep direct pointers to them

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 16 compare: Implementation of a general tree

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 17 Binary Search Trees Stores keys in the nodes in a way so that searching, insertion and deletion can be done efficiently. Binary search tree property For every node X, all the keys in its left subtree are smaller than the key value in X, and all the keys in its right subtree are larger than the key value in X

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 18 Binary Search Trees A binary search tree Not a binary search tree

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 19 Binary search trees Average depth of a node is O(log N); maximum depth of a node is O(N) Two binary search trees representing the same set:

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 20 Implementation

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 21 Searching BST If we are searching for 15, then we are done. If we are searching for a key < 15, then we should search in the left subtree. If we are searching for a key > 15, then we should search in the right subtree.

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 22

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 23 Searching (Find) Find X: return a pointer to the node that has key X, or NULL if there is no such node Time complexity O(height of the tree)

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 24 Inorder traversal of BST Print out all the keys in sorted order Inorder: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 25 findMin/ findMax Return the node containing the smallest element in the tree Start at the root and go left as long as there is a left child. The stopping point is the smallest element Similarly for findMax Time complexity = O(height of the tree)

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 26 insert Proceed down the tree as you would with a find If X is found, do nothing (or update something) Otherwise, insert X at the last spot on the path traversed Time complexity = O(height of the tree)

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 27 delete When we delete a node, we need to consider how we take care of the children of the deleted node. This has to be done such that the property of the search tree is maintained.

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 28 delete Three cases: (1) the node is a leaf Delete it immediately (2) the node has one child Adjust a pointer from the parent to bypass that node

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Binary Search Trees / Slide 29 delete (3) the node has 2 children replace the key of that node with the minimum element at the right subtree delete the minimum element Has either no child or only right child because if it has a left child, that left child would be smaller and would have been chosen. So invoke case 1 or 2. Time complexity = O(height of the tree)

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