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Australia Chapter 16 Geography and History. Contents Geography 1 History 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Australia Chapter 16 Geography and History. Contents Geography 1 History 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Australia Chapter 16 Geography and History

2 Contents Geography 1 History 2


4  Look at the map of Australia carefully and find clues to the following items:  size and location  regions  terrain and topography

5 Size and Location  the sixth largest country in the world  located in Oceania, the Southern Hemisphere  completely surrounded by water:  lying between the Indian and Pacific Oceans  north: the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Torres Strait  east: the Coral Sea, the Tasman Sea  south: the Bass Strait, the Indian Ocean  west: the Indian Ocean

6 Regions  ACT—Australian Capital Territory  NSW—New South Wales  NT—Northern Territory  QLD—Queensland  SA—Southern Australia  TAS—Tasmania  VIC—Victoria  WA—Western Australia

7 Terrain and Topography  The average elevation: 275m  Mount Everest is almost four times as high as Mount Kosciuszko. The highest and lowest point in Australia NameStateHeight (m) Mawson PeakHeard Island2,745 Mount Kosciuszko NSW2,228 Eyre LakeSA-15

8 Climate  an island continent with a diverse range of climate zones  north: tropical  the interior: arid  south: temperate  Temperature: 50—0 ℃

9 Plants and Animals  indigenous plants: eucalyptus the golden wattle  unique animals marsupials: kangaroo, koala, wombat monotremes: platypus and echidna (the only egg-laying mammals in the world)  birds: black swan EMU lyrebird white cockatoo

10 Natural Landscape  Great Barrier Reef  Uluru (Ayers Rock)  Alice Springs  Barossa Valley

11 History 1234 European Exploration and Settlement Movement toward Federation Influence of the War Australia in Development

12 European Exploration and Settlement  early exploration  1606: Torres, Spanish, Torres Strait  1642: Abel Tasman, Dutch, Tasmania Island  1688: William Dampier, British, northwest  1770: James Cook, British, Botany Bay and named it New South Wales  penal settlements  1783: the American Revolution ended and Australia was established as a new penal settlement at Botany Bay in Australia.  expanding colonization:  Growth of sheep grazing  Gold rush  treatment of aborigines:  1788: 300,000 Australian aborigines  19th and 20th century: decline steeply

13 Movement toward Federation  1889: NSW began the movement to replace the Federal Council. Henry Parkes, its premier, announced that the colony would support a new form of federalism.  1900: the six colonies of Australia adopted a federal constitution and the Commonwealth of Australia was established.

14 Influence of the War  WWI: disaster to Australia  1914: total Australian men: 3 million 400,000 volunteered to the war. 60,000 died. tens of thousands wounded  1915: April 25 became the Anzac Day, a day to remind the country ’ s most significant day of public homage.  interwar years: uneven years, Great Depression  WWII: sense of confidence enhanced survived with a sense of pride  postwar peace and prosperity the Snowy Mountains Scheme the Menzies Era

15 Australia in Development  the lucky country:  postwar prosperity  an employment rate of almost 100%  1967 — passed legislation to protect the right of indigenous people  1960s — baby boomers  2000 — the Sydney Olympic Games and the Sydney Paralympic Games


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