2 What Is Behavior?Behavior is anything an animal does in response to a stimulus.A stimulus is an environmental change that directly influences the activity of an organism.Example: Heat stimulates the lizard to seek shade.
3 Behavior PatternsAnimals carry on many activities such as getting food, avoiding predators, caring for young, finding shelter, and attracting mates –that enable them to survive.These behavior patterns, therefor have adaptive value.
4 Inherited BehaviorInheritance plays an important role in the way animals behave.An animal’s genetic make-up determines how that animal reacts to certain stimuli.Example: Birds flying south for the winter.
5 Inherited Behaviors Natural selection favors certain behaviors. Individuals with behavior that makes them more successful at surviving and reproducing tend to produce more offspring than individuals without the behavior.These offspring will inherit the genetic basis for successful behavior.
6 Inherited BehaviorInherited behavior of animals is called innate behavior. Two types of innate behavior: automatic and instinctive behaviorExample: As an insect moves across a toad’s line of sight, the insect detector cells in the toads retinas signal the brain, thus initiating an innate response; the toads tongue flipping out to capture the insect.
7 Automatic ResponseA fight-or-flight response mobilizes the body for greater activity.Your body is being prepared to fight or run from dangerControlled by hormones and the nervous systemA reflex is a simple, automatic response to a stimulus that involves no conscious control. (Simplest form of innate behavior)Ex.: Touching something hot and pulling your hand back
8 Instinctive BehaviorAn instinct is a complex pattern of innate behavior.Instinctive behavior begins when the animal recognizes a stimulus and continues until all parts of the behavior have been performed.
9 Types of Instinctive Behavior Courtship behavior ensures reproductionCourtship behavior is the behavior that males and females of a species carry out before mating.Territoriality reduces competitionA territory is a physical space an animal defends against other members of its species.
10 Types of Instinctive Behavior Aggressive behavior threatens other animalsAggressive behavior is used to intimidate another animal of the same species.Submission leads to dominance hierarchiesA dominance hierarchy is a form of social ranking within a group in which some individuals are subordinate than others. (pecking order)
11 Types of Instinctive Behavior Behavior resulting from internal and external cuesCircadian rhythms are a 24 hour, light-regulated, sleep/wake cycle of behavior. (keeps you alert during the day and helps you relax at night)Migration is the instinctive, seasonal movement of animals.
12 Types of Instinctive Behavior Behavior resulting from internal and external cues continuedHibernation is a state in which body temperature drops, oxygen consumption decreases, and breathing rates decline.Estivation is a state of reduced metabolism that occurs in animals living in conditions of intense heat.
13 Learned BehaviorLearning, or learned behavior, takes place when behavior changes through practice or experience.Learning allows an animal to adapt to change, an ability that is important for animals with long life spans.
14 Kinds of Learned Behavior Habituation: A simple form of learningHabituation occurs when an animal is repeatedly given a stimulus that is not associated with any type of punishment or reward. Example: horses or cows disregarding noisy cars.Imprinting: A permanent attachmentImprinting is a form of learning in which an animal, at a specific critical time of its life, forms a social attachment to another object. Example: duckling learning to recognize their mother and follow her for food and protection
15 Kinds of Learned Behavior Learning by trial and errorTrial and error learning is a type of learning in which an animal receives a reward for making a particular response. Examples: learning to ride a bike or birds using different materials to build a nest until it is just rightMotivation is an internal need that causes an animal to act, and is necessary for learning to take place.
16 Kinds of Learned Behavior Classical Conditioning is learning by associationExample: Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment
17 Kinds of Learned Behavior Insight: the most complex type of learningInsight is learning in which an animal uses previous experience to respond to a new situation.