Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Dr. Shahzadi Tayyaba Hashmi CLINICAL EXAMINATION AND DIAGNOSIS."— Presentation transcript:


2 CLINICAL EXAMINATION  Clinical examination: It includes both extra oral and intra oral examination

3 ORAL EXAMINATION AND DIAGNOSIS  Intra oral examination Hard tissue and soft tissue examination  Extra oral examination Head and neck examination Face (gross abnormality) Skin(pallor, pigmentation and cyanosis) Eyes( anaemia and jaundice) Nose(nasal deviations) T M J (deviation of mandible, any mass over TMJ, tenderness on palpation, clicking sounds) Lymph nodes of head and neck (site, size, number, consistency, tenderness,fixity ) Salivary gland( enlargement of major glands, dryness of mouth, quantity and character of secretion)


5 ORAL EXAMINATION AND DIAGNOSIS Following sequence is followed during clinical examinations Inspection Palpation Percussion Auscultation

6 1) INSPECTION Patient should be observed for : unusual gait and habits (may suggest underlying systemic disease, drug or alcohol abuse) Localized swelling, Presence of bruises, Abrasions, scars Signs of trauma Degree of mouth opening, it should be at least two fingers

7 INSPECTION During intraoral examination, look at the following structures systematically The buccal, labial and alveolar mucosa The hard and soft palate The floor of the mouth and tongue The retromolar region The posterior pharyngeal wall and facial pillars The salivary gland and orifices

8 INSPECTİON (GENERAL DENTAL STATE) Oral hygiene status Amount and quality of restorative work Prevalence of caries Missing tooth Presence of soft or hard swelling Periodontal status Presence of any sinus tracts Discolored teeth Tooth wear and facets

9 PALPATİON Local rise in temperature Tenderness Extent of lesion Induration Fixation to underlying tissues



12 PERCUSSİON Percussion gives information about the periodontal status of the tooth Percussion of tooth indicates inflammation in periodontal ligament which could be due to Trauma Sinusitis PDL disease

13 HOW CAN WE DO PERCUSSION? Percussion can be carried out by : gentle tapping with gloved finger Blunt handle of mouth mirror Each tooth should be percussed on all the surfaces of tooth until the patient is able to localize the tooth with pain. Degree of response to percussion is directly proportional to degree of inflammation

14 PERİODONTAL EVALUATİON Periodontal examination shows change in color contour form density level of attachment bleeding tendency

15 PERİODONTAL EVALUATİON The depth of gingival sulcus is determined by systemic probing using a periodontal probe A sulcus depth greater than 3 mm and the sites that bleed upon probing should be recorded in the patient’s chart The presence of pocket may indicate periodontal disease


17 PERİODONTAL EVALUATİON  How can we check the mobility of the tooth: The mobility of a tooth is tested by placing a finger or blunt end of the instrument on either side of the crown and pushing it and assessing any movement with other finger

18 How to check the mobility of a tooth?

19 PERİODONTAL EVALUATİON  Mobility grades: Slight (normal) Moderate mobility within a range of 1 mm. Extensive movement (more than 1 mm) in mesiodistal or lateral direction combined with vertical displacement in alveolus As a general rule, mobility is graded clinically by applying firm pressure with either two metal instruments or one metal instrument and a gloved finger Normal mobility Grade I: Slightly more than normal (<0.2mm horizontal movement) Grade II :Moderately more than normal (1-2mm horizontal movement) Grade III: Severe mobility (>2mm horizontal or any vertical movement)

20 AUSCULTATION Intra orally of less importance But useful in assessing movement of Temporomandibular joints


Download ppt "Dr. Shahzadi Tayyaba Hashmi CLINICAL EXAMINATION AND DIAGNOSIS."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google