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Power of the Church Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus

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Presentation on theme: "Power of the Church Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus"— Presentation transcript:

1 Power of the Church Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus
Religion in the Middle Ages Growth of Papal Power Changes in Monasticism Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of the Feudal System in Europe

2 Power of the Church Main Idea Reading Focus
Reform and changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe. Reading Focus What was the nature and influence of religion in the Middle Ages? What led to the growth of papal power in Europe? What changes in monasticism were introduced in the Middle Ages?

3 Religion in the Middle Ages
Pope is head of Roman Catholic Church Early popes seen as spiritual leaders During Middle Ages, they became powerful political figures Popes as Political Figures Manorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyalties Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of Christendom Religion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ lives Christian Beliefs

4 Religious Ceremonies Dramatic Increase
Major life events marked by religious ceremonies Monks acted as peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armies Church officials served as teachers, record keepers Clergy people’s main connection to church, had great influence Dramatic Increase Around 1000, influence of church increased dramatically Great upwelling of piety, level of devotion, in Europe Members of Christian church became more devout Participation in religious services increased, thousands flocked to monasteries, joined religious orders

5 Identify Cause and Effect
Why was the medieval clergy so influential? Answer(s): Christian church had strong influence over daily lives of most Europeans; clergy were the people's link to the church

6 Growth of Papal Power Papacy Church Reforms
Not only were Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, many clergy members sought ways to improve conditions. 900s, 1000s, pope had little authority Considered head of church, but local bishops made most important religious decisions Papacy not held in high regard Few popes noted for religious devotion; most were nobles concerned with increasing own power Papacy 1049, first of series of clever, capable popes dedicated to reforming papacy came to power, Leo IX Believed that Europe’s clergy had become corrupt, wanted to reform it Concerned with simony, buying and selling of church offices by bishops Church Reforms

7 Power and Conflict Excommunication Reforms Conflict
Bishops guilty of bad offenses excommunicated, cast out of church No greater punishment for Christians in Middle Ages Person excommunicated could not take part in Eucharist, could not be saved Reforms Leo became more active in governing church than other popes in past Reforms brought him into conflict with political, religious leaders Many bishops believed pope had no authority to tell them how to act Conflict One who rejected Leo’s authority, bishop of Constantinople 1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, split Christian Church in two Those who agreed Leo called Roman Catholics; those who sided with bishop, Orthodox

8 Popes and Politics Popes gained influence over people’s religious lives, also over European politics Pope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters Pope also ruled territories, like Papal States Had ability to raise armies to defend territories Several popes hired Normans to fight wars Crusades against Muslims launched by popes

9 Conflict over Bishops Tradition Reform Bishop of Milan
Although popes had increased their power, they still came into conflict with political leaders. Popes of the late 1000s were firmly resolved to change the way members of the clergy were chosen. Kings, other leaders played active role in choosing clergy Kings chose most bishops Holy Roman emperor named several popes Tradition Reform popes did not think anyone but clergy should choose religious officials Issue became critical during Pope Gregory VII’s pontificate Reform Henry IV, Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city of Milan Gregory did not approve, removed bishop Henry disputed Gregory’s authority Bishop of Milan

10 Gregory and Henry Excommunication Canossa Bishops Power
Gregory’s response was to excommunicate Henry Called on clergy, nobility of Germany to replace emperor Canossa Fearing he would lose his throne, Henry traveled to Canossa to beg forgiveness Reluctantly, Gregory lifted excommunication Bishops Gregory, Henry continued fighting over bishops for years Later popes reached compromise: local clergy would choose bishops Power Most important outcome: Gregory stood up to emperor The pope had become one of strongest figures in Europe

11 In what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages?
Analyze In what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages? Answer(s): eliminated corrupt clergy, appointed bishops, became political leaders, built armies, ruled territory

12 Changes in Monasticism
Contemplation and Prayer Early Middle Ages, monasteries founded by men seeking lives of contemplation and prayer Monasteries often paid for by local rulers, who chose abbots who led them Benedictine Rule Abandoned By around 900, rulers had stopped choosing qualified abbots Many held positions only for prestige In these monasteries, strict Benedictine Rule abandoned Return to Monasticism Early 900s, group of monks sought to return monasticism to strict roots Established new monastery at Cluny, France, to live by Benedictine Rule Monks of Cluny reserved right to choose own abbot

13 Network of Monasteries
Cluny became most influential monastery in Europe Monks established daughter houses, leaders had to answer to Cluny abbot Other monasteries in France, Spain, Italy adopted Cluny’s customs, agreed to follow direction of its abbots Cluny became core of network of monasteries across western Europe For some monks, Benedictine life not strict enough Monks wanted lives free from any worldly distractions Created new orders, most popular of which was Cistercian order New Orders Usually built outside of towns to ensure isolation Undecorated, unheated even in winter; monks divided time between prayer, labor Other new orders even stricter, members lived like hermits Cistercian Monasteries

14 What changes were introduced to monasticism?
Find the Main Idea What changes were introduced to monasticism? Answer(s): stricter rules, monks stayed out of politics, simplified lives


16 Video The Impact of the Feudal System in Europe
Click above to play the video.

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