Presentation on theme: "Native Americans: Cahokia and Iroquois"— Presentation transcript:
1 Native Americans: Cahokia and Iroquois US History – Libertyville HS
2 Cahokia Mound Builders City of Cahokia, c AD (artist’s rendition)
3 Who were the Cahokia?Mississippian people (group of related tribes along Mississippi River)Mound BuildersSubgroup of Miss. tribes that erected earthen mounds as common public worksCahokian culture was centered on a big city near modern day St. Louis
4 Cahokia City and “suburbs” of 30,000 + Rich art work reflected leisure timeHuge trade networkTech included calendars, walls
5 Cahokian Mounds Purpose of mounds Burial? Ceremonial?Living space above flood plain?Massive building effort requiring mobilization of entire civilization, decades / centuriesFrench explorers in 1600s discovered mounds, did not build on them (recognized their significance)Monk’s Mound, Cahokia“Monk’s Mound” – 1037 feet long, 790 feetwide base; ten stories tall; over 250,000square feet
6 Mississippian Trade Network Centered on Great Lakes regionNorth to St. LawrenceAlong Atlantic coastSouth to Gulf of MexicoWest to OklahomaLarger than Europe & Scandinavia!
7 Cahokia Cahokia flourished from 850 to 1500s Abruptly disappeared; why?Massive flooding?Disease?
8 Iroquois ConfederacyLocated in upstate New York and Canada; Empire extended into Ohio ValleyNiagara Falls = center of Iroquois culture, religionIroquois were major force in early US history – why?
9 Iroquois Confederacy Trading empire Military empire based on warrior cultureTotal population = 25,000Unified government / people / cultureUnion of five tribesMohawkOneidaOnodagasCayugasSenecasMohawk Logo“Tree of Peace”
10 Iroquois ConfederacyCalled selves “Haudenosaunee” = human being (“the people”)very arrogant people due to their military successOhio Valley Indians called them “Irokwek” – rough translation = “snake in the grass”French translation = Iroquois
11 Lifestyle of the Iroquois Village dwellers ( persons / village)Communal living, based on genderNOT based on equalityVillage made up of extended families – cousins, aunts, etcFamilies identified matrilineally (through mother’s family)Child, son / daughter of mother, etcIroquois village, c. 1720(note longhouses, wall)
12 Lifestyle of the Iroquois Families lived matrilocally (live where mothers are)Lived in mother’s family lodgeLonghouse = oval shaped, single entrance; sleep to sides, eat, meet in centerVillage, longhouse as woman’s domainWoods, everything else = male’s domainMale goes to live in wife’s longhouseWhy is this a more practical way of organizing society?Iroquois longhouse(interior view here)
13 Lifestyle of the Iroquois Divorce customsRaising childrenLack of domestic violenceChild raisingHigh suicide rate amongst male teens
14 Iroquois Culture VS. Concept of time Examples? Patience needed to hunt, farmNo concept of minutes, hoursCycle of seasons, moon basis of “time”Time concept circular – no beginning or end vs. European linear time: start, end pointExamples?European view of Indians = lazyVS.
15 Iroquois Culture Matriarchal society Gender division of labor Village leadership = clan motherGender division of laborMen = hunter, warrior, political leaderWomen = farmers, village leadersNaming of individualsClan mother named kidsNames given when you do something good, bad, funnyIroquois adopted European names based on what they liked
16 Iroquois Politics Iroquois political system Men discuss, women decide Iroquois a confederacy of tribes50 or so male chiefs got together about 1 / year2 issues to considerMake war?Everyone have food?“Circle of Power”Inner circle of malesOuter circle of clan mothersMen discuss, women decide
17 Iroquois Empire Rivals to Iroquois = Ohio Valley Indians Iroquois defeat them in every conflictBUT European involvement changed dynamicMap of Ohio RiverSystem, created byGeorge Washington(1754)
18 Iroquois and the Europeans European rivalries translated to rivalries between Indian tribesFrench allied with Ohio Valley IndiansWanted trade, not landFrench fur trappers needed Indian hunters / guidesFrench traded guns, alcohol for fursBritish allied with Iroquois (why?)Because French allied with Ohio Valley IndiansFrench trapper and Ohio Indian
19 Conflict between Indians, Europeans Why is it that EVERY contact between Europeans, Indians resulted in bloodshed?Pattern to contactsInitial cooperationDispute over resources based on different perspectives towards those resourcesEuropean ultimatum: move or die vs. Indians we’re not moving and we’ll kill you