2 Objectives At the end of this session, trainees will be able to: Learn some basic ideas on wine, its classification, anatomy, and production.Know the different varieties of grapes – their distinct characteristics and what type of wine they produce.
3 What is Wine? Wine is basically fermented grape juice... It may be: red, white or pink (rosé)dry, medium or sweet in stylewith alcohol content between 5.5 to 14
4 Classification of Wines Still Wines- are wines that are bottled right after the fermentation process.Sparkling Wines- wines are processed through double fermentation to achievecarbon dioxide trapped inside the bottle.Fortified Wines- are wines where neutral grape spirit is added duringor after the fermentation.Aromatized Wines- are fortified wines that have aromatic ingredients added
5 Simple anatomy of the grape : StalksSeldomly used dueto its bitter contentSeedsLike stalksare discardedFlesh or PulpAre pressedto release the juicefor the wineSkinYields tanninand colour
6 How is it being made? Grapes must be transported with care from the vineyard to winery as soonas possible after harvest.Before the grapes are lightlycrushed to release the juice andbring it into contact with yeast,theskin, stalks and pips are removed.Fermentation takes place in either stainless-steel vats or in oakbarrels. Most white wines arefiltered and bottled straightaway to preserve theirfreshnessThe crushedgrapes may be pumped into a tank called Vinimatic to be macerated..
7 How is it being made? Red wines are almost always made from black grapes where the chemicalsin the skin and pips play role in the aging.The stems and stalks are usually taken off. Grapes are then lightly crushed to release their juice, thus allowing fermentation to begin as quickly as possible..Fermentation takes place in either stainless-steel vats or in oakbarrels. Most white wines arefiltered and bottled straightaway to preserve theirfreshnessBoth juice and skins are put in a fermentation vat.
8 Wine ProductionAlthough wine makers use many different techniques to produce wines with unique characteristics, there are six basic steps involved in most wine production. To make red wine, grapes are passed through a mechanical destemmer-crusher (1) to remove the stems and release the juice. The juice, stems, and skins, now called must, is transferred to a fermentation tank (2), where it remains for up to 14 days while yeasts slowly convert the grape sugar to alcohol. The juice, now considered wine, is separated from the skins and stems by passing it through a press (3). The wine is pumped into barrels (4), often made of oak, where it continues to ferment and develop in a process known as aging. During aging, residue settles to the bottom of the barrel and form sediment called the lees. Wine makers may separate the wine from the lees in a process called racking, transferring the wine to clean casks (5). Finally, the wine is mechanically bottled (6), corked, and packaged for distribution. In white wine production the grapes are separated from the skins and stems before fermentation. The grapes are passed through a destemmer-crusher (A), and the must is immediately passed through a press (B) that applies pressure to separate the juice from the skins and stems. The remaining steps, fermentation (C), aging (D), racking (E), and bottling (F), are similar to those of red wine production.
9 Chardonnay The most popular white grape variety, this is in part due to its unfussy temperament andversatility for making wine. Itis the variety behind classic whiteburgundy and one the three varieties usedto make champagne. Wines from this grape aredry and light (crisp apple like flavors) to mediumand full bodied (butter) depending on how theyare made. Chardonnay responds very well tobeing aged in oak. This gives the wine a depth offlavor not achieved by any other process.Chardonnay is easy to cultivate, disease resistant and prolific in most conditions.
10 Semillon This versatile grape make a range of white wines, dry through tovery sweet.It is oftenblended,usually withSauvignon Blancand also Chardonnay.Dry and blended winesare best when youngbut many of the sweeterwines improve with age.Semillon is perhapsgreatest when subject tonoble rot, making some famous dessert wines like Sauternes and Barsac.-thin skinned grapes whichare prone to noble rotSemillon
11 Chenin Blanc Very high acidity characterizes these grapes, which need -thin skin and has high sugar contentVery high aciditycharacterizesthese grapes,which needplenty of sun toripen properly,otherwise thewines are tart.White wines formvery dry through tosweet (some of them are borytrized)as well as sparkling are produced. Successful dry wines are fresh and fruity, sweet wines well balanced and honeyed. Aging improves good quality sweet Chenin Blanc by bringing out the fruit.Chenin Blanc
12 Gewürztraminer-frost is a constant danger to young buds in spring-with distinctive pale pink colourThe highly aromatic wines made form this spicy variety are full – bodies whites that can be dry or sweet. They have low acidity and high alcohol content, often over 13 percent. With its exotic perfume and intense lychee flavor, Gewürztraminer is one of the few wines that will go with spicy food.
13 Sauvignon Blanc This acidity makes this a good blending variety to add -vine growth isvery vigorousThis aciditymakes thisa good blendingvariety to addzest to blend wines.It is most often blended withSemillon. Wines made from this grapeare mostly very dry fresh whites, designedto be drunk young. Their intense taste andaroma, suggestive of green grass andgooseberries, make them easy to recognize.Sauvignon Blanc
14 Riesling-the wood is very hard,making the vine quitefrost-resistantThis classic German variety makes some fine white wines all over the world, from the bone dry to t he very sweet. They are light in body and low in alcohol, yet strongly flavored and very long lived Whatever the style of wine, high acidity always balanced richness. Superb, very sweet wines are made from Riesling grapes that have been subject to noble rot. Rieslings reputation has suffered unfairly in recent years due to similar but inferior grapes being wrongly labeled as Riesling.
15 Cabernet Sauvignon This is the most well known black grape variety in the world. Along with merlot,with which it is often blended. The grapeare high in tannin, so cabernet sauvignonwines age will, (specially if oaked), but needtime to mature. At best, the wines are rich incolor, aroma and depth and in time have a longlasting flavor, often of blackcurrants.-thick skinned andfruits are smalland in blue colour
16 Grenache On its own, this black grape makes warm, fruity flavored -yields are carefullycontrolled to ensurequality due to itsdelicatenessGrenacheOn its own, thisblack grape makes warm, fruity flavoredwines with high alcohol content and aromasof freshly ground black pepper. The grapesare low in tannins, however, so they are oftenblended with highly tannic grapes such asCabernet Sauvignon or Syrah, which benefitsboth of these varieties.
17 Shiraz (Syrah) The Syrah grape makes dark, full -vines are adaptable,thriving in warm placesShiraz (Syrah)The Syrah grape makes dark, fullbodies, strong red wines with greatpotential longevity, particularly if oak aged. Fairly tannic when young, these wines should repay keeping for at least three years and are best with food. Mature Shiraz has aromas of blackcurrant, cedar and mixed spice.
18 Merlot This is the most widely planted black grape -grapes are early tofruit and prolificThis is the most widely planted black grapevariety of Bordeaux where it is usually blendedwith Cabernet Sauvignon. The latter givesbackbone to the Merlot, which is lower in tanninsand acidity, yet add richness and smoothness towines that would otherwise be harsh. On its own,Merlots that are unblended are usually soft and easy drinking wines with flavors of plum and fruitcake.
19 Pinot Noir This is the grape used to make red burgundy. It is extremely sensitive toclimactic conditions and yields are not veryhigh, making it both difficult and expensive toproduce. Rarely blended. Pinot Noir grapesmake faily pale colored, light or mediumbodied reds with a strawberry or raspberryaroma. Pinot Noir is one of the main grapevarieties used in champagne.-has low level oftannin and colour in skin
20 Gamay Beaujolais, which is made from the Gamay grape, are mostly -grape made to bedrunk just weeksafter harvestGamayBeaujolais, which ismade from the Gamay grape, are mostlyuncomplicated, light and fruity reds intendedfor drinking when young and fresh. The winehas a distinct pear aroma, often the result of theproduction methods and a raspberry flavor.Most serious Beaujolais can be aged.