Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Basic Wine Knowledge.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Basic Wine Knowledge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Wine Knowledge

2 Objectives At the end of this session, trainees will be able to:
Learn some basic ideas on wine, its classification, anatomy, and production. Know the different varieties of grapes – their distinct characteristics and what type of wine they produce.

3 What is Wine? Wine is basically fermented grape juice... It may be:
red, white or pink (rosé) dry, medium or sweet in style with alcohol content between 5.5 to 14

4 Classification of Wines
Still Wines - are wines that are bottled right after the fermentation process. Sparkling Wines - wines are processed through double fermentation to achieve carbon dioxide trapped inside the bottle. Fortified Wines - are wines where neutral grape spirit is added during or after the fermentation. Aromatized Wines - are fortified wines that have aromatic ingredients added

5 Simple anatomy of the grape :
Stalks Seldomly used due to its bitter content Seeds Like stalks are discarded Flesh or Pulp Are pressed to release the juice for the wine Skin Yields tannin and colour

6 How is it being made? Grapes must be transported with care
from the vineyard to winery as soon as possible after harvest. Before the grapes are lightly crushed to release the juice and bring it into contact with yeast,the skin, stalks and pips are removed. Fermentation takes place in either stainless-steel vats or in oak barrels. Most white wines are filtered and bottled straight away to preserve their freshness The crushed grapes may be pumped into a tank called Vinimatic to be macerated..

7 How is it being made? Red wines are almost always made
from black grapes where the chemicals in the skin and pips play role in the aging. The stems and stalks are usually taken off. Grapes are then lightly crushed to release their juice, thus allowing fermentation to begin as quickly as possible.. Fermentation takes place in either stainless-steel vats or in oak barrels. Most white wines are filtered and bottled straight away to preserve their freshness Both juice and skins are put in a fermentation vat.

8 Wine Production Although wine makers use many different techniques to produce wines with unique characteristics, there are six basic steps involved in most wine production. To make red wine, grapes are passed through a mechanical destemmer-crusher (1) to remove the stems and release the juice. The juice, stems, and skins, now called must, is transferred to a fermentation tank (2), where it remains for up to 14 days while yeasts slowly convert the grape sugar to alcohol. The juice, now considered wine, is separated from the skins and stems by passing it through a press (3). The wine is pumped into barrels (4), often made of oak, where it continues to ferment and develop in a process known as aging. During aging, residue settles to the bottom of the barrel and form sediment called the lees. Wine makers may separate the wine from the lees in a process called racking, transferring the wine to clean casks (5). Finally, the wine is mechanically bottled (6), corked, and packaged for distribution. In white wine production the grapes are separated from the skins and stems before fermentation. The grapes are passed through a destemmer-crusher (A), and the must is immediately passed through a press (B) that applies pressure to separate the juice from the skins and stems. The remaining steps, fermentation (C), aging (D), racking (E), and bottling (F), are similar to those of red wine production.

9 Chardonnay The most popular white grape
variety, this is in part due to its unfussy temperament and versatility for making wine. It is the variety behind classic white burgundy and one the three varieties used to make champagne. Wines from this grape are dry and light (crisp apple like flavors) to medium and full bodied (butter) depending on how they are made. Chardonnay responds very well to being aged in oak. This gives the wine a depth of flavor not achieved by any other process. Chardonnay is easy to cultivate, disease resistant and prolific in most conditions.

10 Semillon This versatile grape make a range of white wines,
dry through to very sweet. It is often blended, usually with Sauvignon Blanc and also Chardonnay. Dry and blended wines are best when young but many of the sweeter wines improve with age. Semillon is perhaps greatest when subject to noble rot, making some famous dessert wines like Sauternes and Barsac. -thin skinned grapes which are prone to noble rot Semillon

11 Chenin Blanc Very high acidity characterizes these grapes, which need
-thin skin and has high sugar content Very high acidity characterizes these grapes, which need plenty of sun to ripen properly, otherwise the wines are tart. White wines form very dry through to sweet (some of them are borytrized) as well as sparkling are produced. Successful dry wines are fresh and fruity, sweet wines well balanced and honeyed. Aging improves good quality sweet Chenin Blanc by bringing out the fruit. Chenin Blanc

12 Gewürztraminer -frost is a constant danger to young buds in spring -with distinctive pale pink colour The highly aromatic wines made form this spicy variety are full – bodies whites that can be dry or sweet. They have low acidity and high alcohol content, often over 13 percent. With its exotic perfume and intense lychee flavor, Gewürztraminer is one of the few wines that will go with spicy food.

13 Sauvignon Blanc This acidity makes this a good blending variety to add
-vine growth is very vigorous This acidity makes this a good blending variety to add zest to blend wines. It is most often blended with Semillon. Wines made from this grape are mostly very dry fresh whites, designed to be drunk young. Their intense taste and aroma, suggestive of green grass and gooseberries, make them easy to recognize. Sauvignon Blanc

14 Riesling -the wood is very hard, making the vine quite frost-resistant This classic German variety makes some fine white wines all over the world, from the bone dry to t he very sweet. They are light in body and low in alcohol, yet strongly flavored and very long lived Whatever the style of wine, high acidity always balanced richness. Superb, very sweet wines are made from Riesling grapes that have been subject to noble rot. Rieslings reputation has suffered unfairly in recent years due to similar but inferior grapes being wrongly labeled as Riesling.

15 Cabernet Sauvignon This is the most well known black grape
variety in the world. Along with merlot, with which it is often blended. The grape are high in tannin, so cabernet sauvignon wines age will, (specially if oaked), but need time to mature. At best, the wines are rich in color, aroma and depth and in time have a long lasting flavor, often of blackcurrants. -thick skinned and fruits are small and in blue colour

16 Grenache On its own, this black grape makes warm, fruity flavored
-yields are carefully controlled to ensure quality due to its delicateness Grenache On its own, this black grape makes warm, fruity flavored wines with high alcohol content and aromas of freshly ground black pepper. The grapes are low in tannins, however, so they are often blended with highly tannic grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon or Syrah, which benefits both of these varieties.

17 Shiraz (Syrah) The Syrah grape makes dark, full
-vines are adaptable, thriving in warm places Shiraz (Syrah) The Syrah grape makes dark, full bodies, strong red wines with great potential longevity, particularly if oak aged. Fairly tannic when young, these wines should repay keeping for at least three years and are best with food. Mature Shiraz has aromas of blackcurrant, cedar and mixed spice.

18 Merlot This is the most widely planted black grape
-grapes are early to fruit and prolific This is the most widely planted black grape variety of Bordeaux where it is usually blended with Cabernet Sauvignon. The latter gives backbone to the Merlot, which is lower in tannins and acidity, yet add richness and smoothness to wines that would otherwise be harsh. On its own, Merlots that are unblended are usually soft and easy drinking wines with flavors of plum and fruitcake.

19 Pinot Noir This is the grape used to make red
burgundy. It is extremely sensitive to climactic conditions and yields are not very high, making it both difficult and expensive to produce. Rarely blended. Pinot Noir grapes make faily pale colored, light or medium bodied reds with a strawberry or raspberry aroma. Pinot Noir is one of the main grape varieties used in champagne. -has low level of tannin and colour in skin

20 Gamay Beaujolais, which is made from the Gamay grape, are mostly
-grape made to be drunk just weeks after harvest Gamay Beaujolais, which is made from the Gamay grape, are mostly uncomplicated, light and fruity reds intended for drinking when young and fresh. The wine has a distinct pear aroma, often the result of the production methods and a raspberry flavor. Most serious Beaujolais can be aged.

Download ppt "Basic Wine Knowledge."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google