Today’s Vocabulary Iron Curtain – Division that separated Europe; Democracy existed to the west and Communism to the east. Marshall Plan – Aid program to rebuild European nations in order to resist communism. Korean War – 1 st attempt to contain Communism in Asia.
Today’s Vocabulary NATO – Alliance formed by Democratic countries to protect their nation against a Communist attack. Warsaw Pact – Alliance formed by Communist countries to protect their nation against an attack from a Democratic nation.
The Iron Curtain Stalin wanted control over Eastern Europe to create a buffer zone between the Soviet Union and Europe. Many countries fall to Communism. Satellite nations. Many were concerned that Soviets wouldn’t stop at Eastern Europe. Iron curtain – Communism in the East. – Democracy in the West.
U.S. Responds Containment – Stop the spread of Communism from going further. – U.S. would help fight aggressive nations. Truman Doctrine – Gave Greece and Turkey $400 million to resist the Soviet Union. Marshall Plan – Gave economic aid to Western European nations to help rebuild after WWII and resist Communism. – $13 billion to 17 countries.
Berlin Airlift Germany and Berlin were split into occupied 4 zones. The Soviets blocked all roads and RRs into West Berlin. – Free area in the middle of Soviet control. Western powers decide to supply West Berlin by air. – 7,000 tons were delivered daily. – Soviet Union lifted blockade in May 1949.
New Alliances North Atlantic Treaty Organization – An armed attack against one Democratic nation would be considered an attack against all. Warsaw Pact – Same as NATO except to protect Communist nations.
Fear of Communism Discovered that the Soviet Union had developed an atomic weapon. China had turned into a Communist nation. – People’s Republic of China led by Mao Zedong. – Signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union.
Korean War Begins Korean had been controlled by the Japanese. – Soviet Union takes control of North Korea. – U.S. takes control of South Korea. North Korea crossed the 38 th Parallel and invaded South Korea. – Truman decided that the U.S. would fight against aggression and try to contain communism. – United Nations declares war.
MacArthur is Fired MacArthur believed that Chinese forces needed to be pushed back and that Communism should be eliminated from China. – Thought that the U.S. needed to wage war on China and drop the atomic bomb if necessary. When President Truman disagreed, MacArthur argued that he was making a mistake to keep a limited war. – Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination.
Fighting Ends Peace talks went back and forth. – Fighting continued and both sides suffered heavy causalities. Dwight Eisenhower wins the election of 1952. – Promised to end the Korean War. Armistice on July 27 th 1953. – Left Korea looking like it did before the war. – Thousands died or injured.
Eisenhower’s Cold War Policies Massive Retaliation – Promise to use overwhelming force to settle serious conflict with communist nation. – 1,000 bombs in 1953 to 18,000 in 1961. Brinkmanship – The willingness to the verge of war to force the other side to back down. Created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). – Overthrew communism friendly gov’ts in Iran and Guatemala.
Progression of the Cold War Nikita Khrushchev – Violently crushed rebellion in Hungary. U-2 Incident – Sent plane to spy on the Soviet Union but was seen and shot down. – Damaged U.S. & Soviet relations.
Tensions in the Middle East Israel declared its independence. – Zionist Movement- Migration of European Jews to Palestine. Egypt (with Soviet support) seizes the Suez Canal. – Blocked Israel’s only outlet to the sea. – Eisenhower urges Israel to back down. Eisenhower Doctrine – U.S. would help any Middle Eastern nation trying to resist communist aggression. – Lebanon
The Arms Race U.S. and Soviets began to build up stockpiles of weapons. – Each sought new and better weapons. ICBMs—Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. – Could reach anywhere in the world within 30 minutes. Hydrogen Bomb – Potential to create a blast hundreds of times more powerful than an atomic bomb.
Space Exploration Sputnik – 1 st satellite. – Launched by the Soviet Union. Sputnik II – Carried a dog. NASA – The National Aeronautics and Space Administration. – Hoped to land a man on the moon.
Americans React Americans feared a nuclear fallout. Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA) – Helped educate and prepare the public for nuclear emergencies. – “How to Survive an Atomic Bomb.” – Duck and cover drills at school. – Air raid sirens. – Bomb shelters in back yards stocked with necessary supplies.
Classwork Today you will create your own 5 minute propaganda video to inform citizens what to do in case of a nuclear fallout. Must include: – What will you do to prepare for a nuclear fallout to keep yourself safe? – What will you do during a nuclear fallout to keep yourself safe? – What will you do after a nuclear fallout to keep yourself safe?
Reflection Explain how the U.S. tries to contain Communism abroad and how America prepares to fight Communist nations if needed.