2 BAY OF PIGS INVASION April 17, 1961 Attempt to overthrow Cuba’s gov’t Planning began with EisenhowerKennedy accepted the challengeHeavily depended upon Cuban exilesKennedy promised air strikes to aid exiles
3 OPERATION PLUTO 4-part plan-devised by Richard Bissell Eisenhower-”If a Latin American State should establish with the Soviet bloc, close ties of such a nature as seriously to prejudice our vital interest…the U.S. must be prepared to diminish governmental economic and financial cooperation with that country and to take any other policy, economic or military actions deemed appropriate.”Eisenhower, in his parting advice to Kennedy – “Keep your mouth shut about the whole thing.”Dean Rusk (SOS) was NOT available for discussion with any Republicans about “Operation Pluto.Arthur Schlesinger, one of Kennedy’s White House closest advisors, asked Kennedy what he thought about this doggone invasion. The President replied, “ I think about it as little as possible.”“No matter how ‘Cuban’ the equipment and the personnel, the U.S. will be held accountable for the operation and our prestige will be committed to its success.”- Arthur Schlesinger
8 Memorable quotes“To give this activity even covert support is of a piece with the hypocrisy and cynicism for which the U.S. is constantly denouncing the Soviet Union in the UN and elsewhere.” –Senator Fullbright“It is a secret to no one that the armed bands invading this country were trained, equipped and armed in the U.S.A.”- Nikita Khruschev“The U.S. has no right to meddle in our domestic affairs. We do not speak English and we do not chew gum.”- Fidel Castro“This was a struggle of Cuban patriots against a Cuban dictator.”- John F. Kennedy
9 Operation MongooseA CIA covert operation that was promulgated under JFK after the failed Bay of Pigs invasion.GOAL- to “help Cuba overthrow the Communist Regime.
10 The Perfect FailureBotched invasion that manifested themselves post invasion.“Victory has a hundred fathers and defeat is an orphan.” JFK“I have made a tragic mistake. Not only were our facts in error, but our policy was wrong because the premised on which it was built were wrong.”“He would rather be called an aggressor in victory than a bum in defeat.”- JFK
12 Thirteen Days Brinkmanship at its finest October 15- Oct. 28
13 EXCOMM Executive Committee (of the NSC) U.S. government officials created during the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)Members of the NSC and other advisors12 full members , President JFK and Attorney General, Robert Kennedy
19 United States options1- Negotiations- Although peaceful, would give the Soviets more time to finish the missile bases. Caveat- Kennedy would appear weak and flabby.2- Invade Cuba- Eliminate missile threat and in addition, oust Fidel Castro. Caveat-risk all out nuclear war with the Soviets.3- Blockade Cuba- Prevent Soviet ships from making additional nuke deliveries. Soviets would either back down or take aggressive action. Caveat-No one knew Khrushchev’s move.4- Bomb the missile sites- Air strikes would knock out missiles. Caveat- A Soviet counterstrike perhaps?
21 DEFCON DEFENSE READINESS CONDITIONS DEFCON 5- normal peacetime readiness.DEFCON 4- normal, increased intelligence and heightening of national security measures.DEFCON 3- Increase in readiness above normal.DEFCON 2- Readiness just below maximum readiness. USED DURING CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS. (however, limited to Strategic Air Command -1962)DEFCON 1- Maximum readiness. Imminent or ongoing attack on US military forces by a foreign military power. At this point, NUCLEAR WEAPONS AUTHORIZED.
22 THE TWO LETTERS 1ST LETTER –From Khrushchev to JFK *Missiles would be removed if U.S. promised to end quarantine and stay out of Cuba2nd LETTER- Demanded that U.S. remove its missiles from Turkey in exchange for withdrawal of Soviet missiles in CubaRESPONSE- Kennedy accepts terms of first letter; secretly negotiates second letters demands.
23 Legacy of Cuban Missile Crisis 1) Hot line established between Kremlin and White House2) Limited Test Ban Treaty- Banned above ground nuclear testing.Public humiliation for KhrushchevHero status and worldwide recognition for John F. Kennedy and the U.S.A