2 Identify and explain the significance of the Franks and Muslims. Franks: a Germanic tribe that invaded Western Europe and eventually took control of it.Muslims: believers in Islam, who built a great empire that stretched all the way to Spain and threatened Western Europe.
3 Describe how each of the following traditions influenced Charlemagne’s rule: Roman, German, Christian.Roman: Charlemagne tried to turn his capital, Aachen, into a “second Rome” by making it the center of a revival of Latin learning;German: He used a German system of rule. That is, he gave land to powerful nobles and appointed them to rule over it for him. Officials kept an eye on these rulers.Christian: Christianity became the empire’s religion and helped to unite it.
4 Identify the responsibilities of the peasant toward the lord, and of the lord toward the peasant. Peasants were responsible for farming the lord’s lands, repairing his roads and fences, and fulfilling marriage, inheritance, and other specified payments to the lord.The lord was responsible for protecting the peasants in times of war and providing them with land to farm for themselves.
5 Describe ways the Church shaped medieval life. The Church: influenced male and female roles; controlled behavior and morals; served as the focus of social life; provided education; limited the power of monarchs.
6 List functions performed by monks and nuns during medieval times. Monks and nuns took care of the sick and poor; ran schools; provided lodging for travelers; preserved writings of the ancient world; and acted as missionaries for Christianity.
7 List three new technologies or improvements that led to an agricultural revolution in Western Europe.New technologies or improvements included: iron plows; new harnesses that allowed horses to be used instead of oxen; windmills; making more land available; the three-field system.
8 List economic or social changes that resulted from the growth of trade in the Middle Ages. the development of a money economy;the growth of banking; the development of new business practices, including partnerships, insurance, and bills of exchange;the weakening of serfdom;the growth of guilds;the appearance of a middle class;new roles for women.
9 Why is the structure of feudal society sometimes described as a pyramid? As power increases, fewer and fewer people hold parallel positions.Powerless peasants, who make up most of the population, form the base of the pyramid.Above them and greatly less in number are knights.Fewer still are the lords, the level above the knights.Finally at the apex sits the monarch
10 The test will also include a primary source analysis and a map or graph based question.