Presentation on theme: "Chapter 181 Managing by Facts Chapter 18 Achieving Quality Through Continual Improvement Claude W. Burrill / Johannes Ledolter Published by John Wiley."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 181 Managing by Facts Chapter 18 Achieving Quality Through Continual Improvement Claude W. Burrill / Johannes Ledolter Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999 Prepared by Dr. Tomi Wahlström, University of Southern Colorado
Chapter 182 The Need for Data Quality cannot be assessed, and quality cannot be improved without having access to relevant data To judge things impartially and make fair comparisons, it is necessary to have facts - data Whatever is important is measured, and whatever is measured becomes important In God we trust, all others must have data!
Chapter 183 Data and Quality “A requirement for a product must specify not only an attribute or function, but it must also state the standard against which the attribute or function will be judged and the process to be used in measuring the product” - this is where data comes on the scene Data related directly to the question: –Does the product meet the requirements?
Chapter 184 Quantitative and Qualitative Data Data can be: –Quantitative: expressed in numbers –Qualitative: verbal or nonnumeric Sometimes, it is more practical to work with non-quantified data, since not everything can be reasonably and beneficially quantified
Chapter 185 Uses of Data Data is used to: –Manage a process Cost of quality and allocating resources –Understand a process Defect is injected to system and quality control system failed to eliminate it –Control a process –Improve a process
Chapter 186 Collecting Data Before collecting anything, ask: –What is the purpose of collecting the data? –What data do I need? –How will I collect it? –How will I analyze it? –What conclusions am I attempting to draw? –How will I present those conclusions to achieve my objective?
Chapter 187 Collection Process Some points to keep in mind when building a data-collection mechanism: –Understand clearly all uses of data –Organize data collection –Collect data so as to simplify the task of analysis –Keep a clear record of where data came from and important circumstances around it
Chapter 188 Collection Problems People forget and later make an estimate Sometimes it requires ingenuity to collect the data you need Data accuracy –The need for accuracy depends on the use to be made of the data –Sometimes more important to make sure that data is representative
Chapter 189 Problems with Data False data –People lie, deceive, and slant data in their favor especially when data is used to appraise them Mistaken data –People unaware that they are giving false data Incorrect data Unavailable data Useless data
Chapter 1810 Classification of Data To understand the underlying message in the data, it needs to be organized, summarized, and interpreted Classification scheme: collection of subsets that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive Classification: labeling of the elements according to the classes they belong
Chapter 1811 Schemes for Data Classification Enumerative (hierarchical) or faceted (synthesized) What others have done: –Temporal aspects –Location –Characteristic or the defect