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The Self, Identity, and Personality

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1 The Self, Identity, and Personality
CHAPTER 11 The Self, Identity, and Personality

2 The Self Self-understanding When does self-understanding Begin?
Self: All characteristics of a person Self-understanding, self-esteem, self-concept Identity: Who a person is, representing a synthesis of self-understanding Personality: Individuals’ enduring personal characteristics When does self-understanding Begin? Rebecca Elder

3 The Self Self-understanding Middle and Late Childhood
Increased awareness of social standing Self-understanding becomes more complex Understanding others Realize others have access to more information Assume others understand them, too.

4 The Self Self-understanding
Perspective-taking: Ability to assume another’s perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings Important in children developing prosocial and antisocial attitudes and behaviors Affects peer status and quality of friendships

5 The Self Middle and Late Childhood
Self-understanding: five key changes Internal characteristics emphasized More referencing in social descriptions More use of social comparisons Distinguish between real self and ideal self Realistic in self-evaluations

6 Carl Rogers and Self-Concept
Real self - one’s perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities Ideal self – what one should or would like to be REAL SELF IDEAL SELF REAL SELF IDEAL SELF Real self - one’s perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities. Ideal self - one’s perception of whom one should be or would like to be. According to Rogers, the self-concept includes the real self and the ideal self. The real self is a person’s actual perception of traits and abilities, whereas the ideal self is the perception of what a person would like to be or thinks he or she should be. When the ideal self and the real self are very similar (matching), the person experiences harmony and contentment. When there is a mismatch between the two selves, the person experiences anxiety and may engage in neurotic behavior. Match = Harmony Mismatch = Anxiety

7 The Self Self-esteem and self-concept
Self-esteem: Self-worth, self-image Refers to global self-evaluation Self-concept: Domain-specific evaluations of self Distinct: not really interchangeable

8 The Self Issues in self-esteem
Modest correlation with school performance Linked to job performance; correlations vary Related to perceived physical appearance across life-span Depression lowers high self-esteem Self-esteem in adolescence appears linked to adjustment and competencies in adulthood

9 Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory
Development proceeds in stages Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisis Stages reflect the motivation of the individual

10 Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Human Development
1 - Trust vs. mistrust 2 - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3 - Initiative vs. guilt 4 - Industry vs. inferiority 5 - Identity vs. identity confusion 6 - Intimacy vs. isolation 7 - Generativity vs. stagnation 8 - Integrity vs. despair

11 Erikson’s Human Development Stages
1 - Trust vs. Mistrust 0–1 years 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1–3 years 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt 3–5 years Developed through consistent love and support Independence fostered by support and encouragement Developed by exploring and accepting challenges

12 Erikson’s Human Development Stages
4 - Industry vs. Inferiority 6 years–puberty 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation Early adult years Mastery comes from success and recognition Exploration of different paths to attain a healthy identity Form positive, close relationships with others

13 Erikson’s Human Development Stages
7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood 8 - Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood Transmitting something positive to the next generation Life review and retrospective evaluation of one’s past

14 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
Self-concept is a cognitive appraisal of our social, physical, and academic competence. Cognitive Academic Social Physical Self-esteem is the affective or emotional reaction to one’s self-concept.

15 The Self Developmental changes in self-esteem
Concern today: Unmerited praise as child linked to inflated self-esteem in college students; difficulty handling competition and criticism Adulthood Results vary on self-esteem decreasing Individual coping skills affects perceptions of changes, events; social context matters

16 Strategies for Erikson’s Stages of Development
Initiative Encourage social play Have children assume responsibility Structure assignments for success Industry Nourish motivation for mastery Be tolerant of honest mistakes Identity Recognize that identity is multidimensional Encourage independent thinking Stimulate students to examine different perspectives

17 Identity Developmental changes Identity statuses by Marcia
Crisis: Period for exploring alternative identities Commitment: Personal investment in identity Young adolescents primarily in statuses of diffusion, foreclosure, or moratorium Handouts

18 Figure 11.6 - Marcia’s Identity Statuses

19 Ethnic Identity … Positive ethnic identity Higher school engagement
“is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feeling related to that membership” (Phinney, 2006) (as cited in Santrock, 2009). Positive ethnic identity Higher school engagement Lower aggression good coping Affected by higher education

20 Personality Definition: Enduring personal characteristics
Trait theories Traits: Ways to describe a person by behaviors Basic units/building blocks of personality Five big factors: OCEAN Led to advancements in assessing personality Most believe personality is result of trait-situation interaction

21 Figure 11.7 - Big Five Factors of Personality

22 Personality Views on adult personality development
Stage crisis view: Erikson, Levinson Levinson’s seasons of a man’s life Stage and transitions occur in life span Tasks/crisis in each stage shape personality Levinson’s midlife crisis in 40s: try to cope with gap between past and future Vaillant’s Grant Study

23 Levinson’s Seasons of Life
Early Adult Transition: 17 to 22 Entry life structure for early adulthood: 22 to 28 Age 30 transition: 28 to 33 Culminating life structure for early adulthood: 33 to 40 Middle Adult Transition: ages 40 to 45 Entry life structure for middle adulthood: 45 to 50 Age 50 transition: 50 to 55 Culminating life structure for middle adulthood: 55 to 60 Era of late adulthood: 60 to ? Late Adult Transition: 60 to 65

24 Personality Individual variations
Individuals have different experiences, ways of adapting, expectations, perceptions of needs, and giving meaning to one’s life Stage theories stress stage crises too much Too much emphasis on midlife crisis Great variation in how individuals experience stages (coping abilities, emotions)

25 Personality Life events approach Alternative to stage approach
Contemporary life-events approach How a life event influences individual’s development depends on The life event Individual’s adaptation to the life event Life-stage context Sociohistorical context


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