2 Figure 1.1 Levels of structural organization. Slide 1Smooth muscle cellAtomsMoleculesChemical levelAtoms combine toform molecules.12Cellular levelCells are madeup of molecules.Smoothmuscletissue3Tissue levelTissues consist ofsimilar types of cells.BloodvesselsHeartEpithelialtissueSmoothmuscletissueBloodvessel(organ)Cardio–vascularsystemConnectivetissue4Organ levelOrgans are made up ofdifferent types of tissues.5Organ system levelOrgan systems consist ofdifferent organs that worktogether closely.6Organismal levelHuman organisms aremade up of many organsystems.
4 Figure 1.2a The body’s organ systems. Skin(a) Integumentary SystemForms the external body covering; protectsdeeper tissue from injury; synthesizesvitamin D; location of cutaneous receptors(pain, pressure, etc.) and sweat and oil glands.
6 Figure 1.2b The body’s organ systems. CartilagesJointBones(b) Skeletal SystemProtects and supports body organs; provides aframework the muscles use to cause movement;blood cells are formed within bones; storesminerals.
10 Figure 1.2d The body’s organ systems. BrainSensory receptorSpinal cordNerves(d) Nervous SystemFast-acting control system of the body;responds to internal and external changes byactivating appropriate muscles and glands.
13 Figure 1.2e The body’s organ systems. Pineal glandPituitary glandThyroid gland (parathyroidglands on posterior aspect)Thymus glandAdrenal glandsPancreasTestis (male)Ovary (female)(e) Endocrine SystemGlands secrete hormones that regulateprocesses such as growth, reproduction, andnutrient use by body cells.
17 Figure 1.2g The body’s organ systems. Thoracic ductLymph nodesLymphatic vessels(g) Lymphatic SystemPicks up fluid leaked from blood vessels andreturns it to blood; disposes of debris in thelymphatic stream; houses white blood cellsinvolved in immunity.
19 Figure 1.2h The body’s organ systems. Nasal cavityPharynxLarynxTracheaBronchusLeft lung(h) Respiratory SystemKeeps blood constantly supplied with oxygenand removes carbon dioxide; the gaseousexchanges occur through the walls of the airsacs of the lungs.
21 Figure 1.2i The body’s organ systems. Oral cavityEsophagusStomachSmall intestineLarge intestineRectumAnus(i) Digestive SystemBreaks food down into absorbable units thatenter the blood for distribution to body cells;indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
25 Figure 1.2k-l The body’s organ systems. Mammary glands(in breasts)Prostate glandSeminalvesiclesUterine tubeOvaryUterusVas deferensPenisTestisVaginaScrotum(k) Male Reproductive System(l) Female Reproductive SystemOverall function of the reproductive system is production of offspring. Testes producesperm and male sex hormone; ducts and glands aid in delivery of viable sperm to thefemale reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones; remainingstructures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammaryglands of female breast produce milk to nourish the newborn.