Presentation on theme: "The reproductive system allows the production of offspring."— Presentation transcript:
1 The reproductive system allows the production of offspring. Human Biology 4.3The reproductive system allowsthe production of offspring.
2 The reproductive system produces specialized cells. The reproductive system allows adults to produce offspring.Males and females have different reproductive systems which make specialized cells.Female specialized cells are called egg cells.Male specialized cells are called sperm cells.Each specialized cell provides genetic material, needed information for the organism to form, develop, and grow.Both male and female reproductive systems rely on hormones to signal the process of sexual development.Growth of reproductive organsDevelopment of sexual characteristics.Once mature, reproductive organs produce hormones to maintain secondary sexual characteristics.
3 The reproductive system produces specialized cells. Main IdeaDetail NotesThe reproductive system produces specialized cells.A. Males and females have different reproductive systems.B. Both males and females make specialized reproductive cells.C. In the female, the specialized cells are called egg cells.D. In the male, the specialized cells are called sperm cells.E. Each cell contains all the genetic material needed for growth and development.
4 The Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system has two functions.produce egg cellsprotect and nourish the offspring until birth.Two reproductive organs called ovaries.Each contains hundreds of egg cells.Pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates some of the eggs to develop and grow every 28 days.
5 MenstruationAfter an egg cell develops another hormone signals the ovary to release the egg.Egg moves from the ovary into a fallopian tube.If within ten to twelve hours the egg cell is fertilized by a sperm cell, it will move to the uterus.After implanting inside the thick lining of the uterus, the fertilized egg cell rapidly grows and divides.If fertilization does not occur within 24 ,the egg and the lining of the uterus begin to break down.Muscles in the uterus contract in a process called menstruation.During menstruation there is a flow of blood and tissue from the body through a canal called the vagina over a period of about five days.
6 The Female Reproductive System and Menstruation Flow of blood and tissueLasts about 5 daysOccurs if fertilization does not take placeMuscles of the uterus contract
7 The Male Reproductive System The organs that produce sperm are called the testes.Produced inside tiny, coiled tubes hundreds of feet long inside the testes.The testes release a hormone that controls the development of sperm.This hormone is also responsible for physical characteristics such as facial hair and a deep voice.Sperm cells are the specialized cells of the male reproductive system.Sperm starts being produced sometime during adolescence.
8 The Male Reproductive System The sperm is a single cell with a head and a tail.The head is filled with chromosomes.The tail functions as a whip to make the sperm mobile.Sperm travel from the testes, through several different structures of the reproductive system.While they travel, the sperm mix with fluids called semen which contains nutrients for the sperm cells.One drop of semen contains up to several million sperm cells.Chromosomes are contained in the nucleus.
9 The reproduction of offspring includes fertilization, pregnancy, and birth. Each sex cell has half of the genetic material needed for a human being to grow and develop.During sexual intercourse, millions of sperm cells leave the testes and exit the body through the urethra.Sperm is ejaculated into the female’s vagina.Sperm travel into the uterus and continue to the fallopian tube.
10 Reproduction includes fertilization, pregnancy, and birth. Step 1The sperm leave the testes.Step 2The sperm exit through the urethra.Step 3The sperm enter through the vagina.Step 4The sperm travel to the uterus and on to the fallopian tube.
11 Fertilization Occurs when one sperm cell joins the egg cell. Once fertilized in the fallopian tube, chemical changes to the egg’s surface prevent any more sperm from entering.Once inside the egg, the genetic material from the sperm combines with the genetic material of the egg cell.The fertilized egg cell moves down the fallopian tube toward the uterus.It divides into two cells, then each of those cells divides again.Cell division continues, and within a few days, the embryo implants itself to the lining of the uterus
12 The egg cell moves down the fallopian tube following fertilization The egg cell moves down the fallopian tube following fertilization. Its final destination is the uterus.
13 Occurs when one sperm cell joins an egg cell FertilizationOccurs when one sperm cell joins an egg cellCauses chemical changes in the egg’s surfaceOccurs in the fallopian tube.Genetic material from the sperm and egg combine togetherEmbryoBall of cellsFormed as a result of cell divisionDevelops after fertilizationAttaches itself to the uterus
14 Pregnancy Three periods of specific stages of development. Week 1 the embryo grows rapidly and the placenta forms.Blood vessels lead from the mother’s circulatory system to the embryo through the umbilical cord.Oxygen and nutrients move through the placenta and umbilical cord to the growing embryo.Week 8 the developing embryo is called a fetus.Begins to have facial featuresMajor organ systemsBeginnings of a skeletonBecomes male or femaleWeek 12 fetus continues to grow and bones develop further.In the last twelve weeks the fetus and all its organ systems develop fully.
16 Labor and DeliveryAt the end of pregnancy, the fetus is fully developed.Birth of a fetus is divided into three stages.LaborBegins with muscular contractions of the uterus.Contractions start at 10 to 30 minutes and last about 40 seconds.They progress until they are occurring about every 2 minutes.DeliveryCervix dilates until it becomes wide enough for the mother’s muscles to push the fetus out.The fetus is pushed out of the uterus, through the vagina, and out of the body.The fetus is still connected to the mother by the umbilical cord.Birth of the placentaThe umbilical cord is cut shortly after the fetus is delivered.The placenta separates from the uterine wall and the mother pushes it out with more muscular contractions.
17 Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, and Multiple Births Name of the StageWhat Happens in This StageFirstlaborThe uterus contractsSecondDelivery of the fetusThe baby is pushed out of the uterusThirdbirthThe placenta is pushed out
18 Multiple BirthsThe birth of more than one offspring is called a multiple birth.Uncommon in humansIdentical twins are produced when a single fertilized egg divides in half, forming two complete organisms.Always of the same sexLook alikeHave identical blood typesForm early in pregnancyApproximately 1 in 29 births is a set of identical twinsFraternal twins are produced when two eggs are released at the same time and are fertilized by two different sperm.May be very different from each otherCan be the same sex or different sexes
19 Identical twins, which begin as a single fertilized egg, are always the same sex and blood type, and are very hard to tell apart.Fraternal twins may or may not be the same sex or blood type, and they often do not look any more alike than other siblings.